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  • Cafarova, Lolita
    The Swedish Red Cross University College.
    Aspekter som påverkar compliance hos ungdomar med diabetes typ 1: En allmän litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    BAKGRUND: Det kan vara överväldigande att bli diagnostiserad med och leva med en kronisk sjukdom. För många ungdomar påverkas vardagen mycket och innebär även familjen påverkas. Diabetes typ 1 är en allvarlig sjukdom som kräver regelbundna blodsocker-kontroller, insulinadministrering flera gånger dagligen och särskild kost och regelbunden motion. Compliance är en term som används för att beskriva hur väl en patient följer behandlingsrekommendation samt råd vilket är särskilt utmanande för ungdomar.

    SYFTE: Syftet med studien var att beskriva vilka aspekter som påverkar compliance hos ungdomar med diabetes typ 1. METOD: En litteraturöversikt genomfördes baserad på 12 vetenskapliga artiklar med både kvantitativ och kvalitativ ansats.

    RESULTAT: Efter granskning och analys av de valda artiklarna presenterades två huvudkategorier: Aspekter som minskar compliance och Aspekter som ökar compliance. Huvudkategorierna har tre underkategorier var. SLUTSATS: Som ungdom, med diagnosen diabetes typ 1, finns det flera aspekter som påverkar compliance. Behandlingen är komplex samt består av flera delar vilket är särskilt utmanande för ungdomar som genomgår en utvecklingsfas. Denna allmänna litteraturstudie visar på att familjen har störst påverkan på ungdomars compliance samt utgör en central och viktig roll i sina barns liv.

  • Karanja, David
    The Swedish Red Cross University College.
    “Until Everyone is Free, No One is Free.” IlluminatingCaring Encounters as Experience d by Nurses in theManagement of HIV/ AIDS: Case Study: Nurses attending to MSM living with HIV/AIDS in Nairobi, Kenya2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Nurses work closely with patients to improve care and alleviate suffering among PLHIV. However, the segregation of MSM in society and the criminalization of same-sex behaviours have caused great havoc causing deaths and suffering in developing countries for more than three decades since the scourge of HIV/AIDS emerged. Aim: The study aimed to illuminate the caring encounters in nursing management of HIV/AIDS among MSM living in Nairobi, Kenya. Method: Five semi-structured interviews were conducted to nurses and data analysed through thematic analysis. Results: Four themes were constructed; the importance of holistic care approach, operanalization of empowerment, the need for sensitization, and living in segregation. Eight sub-themes were formulated: achieving positive patient ́s wellbeing, effective nurse-patient relationship, improving health awareness, provision of social support, conflicts of values, judgmental nurses, rejection of MSM in the society, and rampant discrimination of MSM. Conclusion: Sensitized nurses on MSM sexual behaviours provide holistic care and empower MSM in the management of HIV/AIDS, unlike the ones who still hold onto homophobic prejudice based on religious, cultural and personal beliefs. The study recommends the training of nurses to be aware of the harmful societal attitudes, beliefs, rejection, and discrimination that hinders the effective management of HIV/AIDS.

  • Eriksson, Catrin
    et al.
    Sophiahemmet University.
    Skinstad, Matilda
    Sophiahemmet University.
    Georgsson, Susanne
    The Swedish Red Cross University College. Karolinska Institutet.
    Carlsson, Tommy
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Health Sciences. Sophiahemmet University / Uppsala University.
    Quality of websites about long-acting reversible contraception: a descriptive cross-sectional study2019In: Reproductive Health, ISSN 1742-4755, E-ISSN 1742-4755, Vol. 16, no 1, article id 172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Today, there are various short- and long-acting contraceptive alternatives available for those who wish to prevent unintended pregnancy. Long-acting reversible contraception are considered effective methods with a high user satisfaction. High-quality information about contraception is essential in order to empower individuals to reach informed decisions based on sufficient knowledge. Use of the Web for information about contraception is widespread, and there is a risk that those who use it for this purpose could come in contact with sources of low quality.

    OBJECTIVE: The overarching aim was to investigate the quality of websites about long-acting reversible contraception.

    METHODS: Swedish client-oriented websites were identified through searches in Google (n = 46 included websites). Reliability and information about long-acting reversible contraceptive choices were assessed by two assessors with the DISCERN instrument, transparency was analyzed with the Journal of the American Medical Association benchmarks, completeness was assessed with inductive content analysis and readability was analyzed with Readability Index.

    RESULTS: The mean DISCERN was 44.1/80 (SD 7.7) for total score, 19.7/40 (SD 3.7) for reliability, 22.1/35 (SD 4.1) for information about long-acting reversible contraceptive choices, and 2.3/5 (SD 1.1) for overall quality. A majority of the included websites had low quality with regard to what sources were used to compile the information (n = 41/46, 89%), when the information was produced (n = 40/46, 87%), and if it provided additional sources of support and information (n = 30/46, 65%). Less than half of the websites adhered to any of the JAMA benchmarks. We identified 23 categories of comprehensiveness. The most frequent was contraceptive mechanism (n = 39/46, 85%) and the least frequent was when contraception may be initiated following an abortion (n = 3/46, 7%). The mean Readability Index was 42.5 (SD 6.3, Range 29-55) indicating moderate to difficult readability levels, corresponding to a grade level of 9.

    CONCLUSIONS: The quality of client-oriented websites about long-acting reversible contraception is poor. There is an undeniable need to support and guide laypersons that intend to use web-based sources about contraceptive alternatives, so that they may reach informed decisions based on sufficient knowledge.

  • Okenwa-Emegwa, Leah
    et al.
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Health Sciences. University of Gävle.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Health Sciences.
    Teaching human rights, equality and equity in a Nursing education: Teachers’ encounters with students’ existential preparedness in relation to access to healthcare for people with precarious migration status2019In: Existential Medical Humanities 7-8 of November 2019 Arranged by the Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge, Södertörn University, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Existentialism in nursing is often discussed in terms of diagnoses and end-of-life and rarely from the perspective of inequalities and equitable access to healthcare. The nursing profession is known for advocacy especially for improved patients’ rights and safety. Some core ethical values of the Swedish Society of Nursing include respect for patients’ dignity, integrity, autonomy in decision making and respect for the vulnerable. Furthermore, nurses should help patients experience trust, hope and meaning in encounters with healthcare systems.

    At the Swedish Red Cross University, “Health, equality and human rights” is a module in a mandatory second term course. The intended learning outcomes (ILOs) are to explain public health goals, policy documents, fundamental human rights, ethics and their applications in health context. One of the teaching/learning activities is an educational drama (ED) led by the Youth wing of the Swedish Red Cross Society. It’s a two-hour role-play depicting common pre-flight and during-flight experiences of families and individual victims of forced migration (VOFM). Participants make tough decisions like emptying savings, trusting strangers for the difficult journey or which child to send first. At the “migration office” they must prove their identity and story. They may experience families split at borders, being duped of their savings or sent back to country of origin. Using ED promotes teamwork, negotiation, socialization, aids recall of what has been taught and stimulates student’s imagination and empathy for situations that might seem distant.

    This scholarly presentation is based on the evaluation of ED as a pedagogical approach. Evaluations consistently show positive outcomes in line with the ILOs, however, teachers also notice how the ED tends to stimulate existential reflections during each session. These are presented here using Sartre’s existential concepts of human freedom/responsibility, choice, aguish, bad faith, and authenticity. Concurrent reflections of the other (i.e. VOFM) and self, first as an individual and secondly as future nurses encountering VOFMs (Sartre’s existence precedes essence), are common. The VOFM’s burden of responsibility, pursuit of freedom and anguish following various choices appear to stimulate existential concerns in relation to privileges taken for granted in Sweden. An example is access to healthcare as an obvious right, in contrast to a continuum of suffering for VOFMs (tough experiences pre/during-flight, discrimination and limited access to healthcare after arriving in Sweden). The restrictive healthcare policy for people with precarious migration status in Sweden and its challenging implementation are often woven into the discussions. Dimensions of bad faith and authenticity are raised, followed by a shift in perspective accepting healthcare for all. The need for nurses (including themselves as future nurses) to be more knowledgeable about health provisions for VOFMs and for policies enduring equitable access to healthcare for VOFMs are reiterated (Sartre’s “representatives of humanity”).

    To conclude, the workshop stimulates existential preparedness in students which aligns with nursing ethical codes e.g. social justice, advocacy, good nursing care to alleviate suffering and constant reflections to challenge own values and beliefs. We argue that this existential preparedness to deal with inequality in health is just as important as the existential thoughts discussed through the lens of diagnoses and end of life care.