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Lachmann, H. & Nilsson, J. (2021). Dual use of instruments for assessing nursing students professional- and clinical competence. Nurse Education Today, 96, Article ID 104616.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dual use of instruments for assessing nursing students professional- and clinical competence
2021 (English)In: Nurse Education Today, ISSN 0260-6917, E-ISSN 1532-2793, Vol. 96, article id 104616Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Changes in demographics and the development of health systems have a direct impact on patients' nursing needs and nurses' ability to meet them. Modern and forward-looking nursing education programmes that will help nursing students to develop their professional competence require useful tools for assessment and self-reflection that can be combined in theoretical and clinical education.

Objectives: To investigate the associations between the Nurse Professional Competence Scale – Short Form (NPC-SF), and the tool Assessment of Clinical Education (AssCE) tool, and to assess the graduating students´ professional competence based on their self-assessment.

Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study design was used.

Participants and settings: A total of 151 nursing students at a Swedish university college completed the NPC-SF and the AssCE (response rate 77%).

Methods: In their final weeks of the nursing programme, students were invited to respond to two questionnaires: the NPC Scale - Short Form (35 items) and the AssCE tool (21 items).

Result: There are significant correlations between the nursing students' responses to the NPC-SF competence areas and the AssCE areas (r = 0.19–0.57). Students score in the NPC-SF were highest in Value-based Nursing Care and lowest in Development, Leadership and Organization of Nursing Care, and in the AssCE areas student scores were highest in Examination and treatment and Professional Approach and lowest in Management and Cooperation.

Conclusion: The NPC-SF and AssCE are valid and reliable instruments, showing a high level of correlation. Results imply that dual use could strengthen student-centred theoretical and clinical learning as well as professional competence development. Additional research is needed to assess student's competence development during the nursing program.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2021
Keywords
AssCE, Competence, Newly graduated nurses, NPC Scale – Short form
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:rkh:diva-3474 (URN)10.1016/j.nedt.2020.104616 (DOI)33130447 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85094589817 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-11-02 Created: 2020-11-02 Last updated: 2020-12-21Bibliographically approved
Dyar, A., Stenfors, T., Lachmann, H. & Kiessling, A. (2021). What about the supervisor? Clinical supervisors' role in student nurses' peer learning: a phenomenographic study. Medical Education, 55(6), 713-723
Open this publication in new window or tab >>What about the supervisor? Clinical supervisors' role in student nurses' peer learning: a phenomenographic study
2021 (English)In: Medical Education, ISSN 0308-0110, E-ISSN 1365-2923, Vol. 55, no 6, p. 713-723Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

INTRODUCTION: Peer learning is increasingly used for healthcare students in the clinical setting. However, as peer learning between students involves students taking a teaching role, it is unclear what the supervisor's role then becomes. It is vital to determine the role of the supervisor in student peer learning to ensure high quality learning and patient safety.

METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were performed with 15 student nurse supervisors (nurses and assistant nurses) from two hospital wards that practice peer learning to investigate the different ways clinical supervisors view their role in students' peer learning. Transcribed data were coded and analysed using a phenomenographic approach.

RESULTS: Four hierarchical levels of the supervisor's understanding of their role in students' peer learning were identified: the teacher; the facilitator; the stimulator; and the team player. These categories represent an increasingly inclusive view of which people present on the ward play a role in enabling effective peer learning.

CONCLUSIONS: The various understandings of supervisor roles have implications for how supervision of peer learning could be implemented in the future.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2021
National Category
Nursing Ethics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:rkh:diva-3673 (URN)10.1111/medu.14436 (DOI)33325543 (PubMedID)
Funder
Stockholm County Council
Available from: 2020-12-22 Created: 2020-12-22 Last updated: 2021-06-09Bibliographically approved
Olsson, C., Lachmann, H., Kalén, S., Ponzer, S. & Mellstrand Navarro, C. (2020). Personality and learning styles in relation to attitudes towards interprofessional education: a cross-sectional study on undergraduate medical students during their clinical courses. BMC Medical Education, 20(1), Article ID 398.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Personality and learning styles in relation to attitudes towards interprofessional education: a cross-sectional study on undergraduate medical students during their clinical courses
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2020 (English)In: BMC Medical Education, E-ISSN 1472-6920, Vol. 20, no 1, article id 398Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Interprofessional Education (IPE) is now included in curricula in universities worldwide. It is known that there are differences in attitudes towards IPE among students, but less is known regarding how students' personalities and learnings styles correspond with those attitudes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether personality traits and learning styles have any impact on medical students' attitudes towards IPE.

METHODS: Seventy nine medical students in their 9th term (63% females, mean age 29 years) were questioned regarding their attitudes towards IPE according to the Interdisciplinary Education Perception Scale questionnaire, the Kolb's learning style and Big Five Inventory questionnaires. For all three instruments we used the Swedish translated versions.

RESULTS: When investigated with a logistic regression, adjusting for age and gender, there were no significant associations between Big Five inventory, Kolb's learning style and IEPS, except for the Reflective-Pragmatic learning style that was moderately associated with a higher IEPS score.

CONCLUSION: There was no clear correlation between personality, learning style and attitude towards IPE as measured by the IEPS among medical students in our study population. Further investigations would benefit from a combination of qualitative and quantitative design.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central, 2020
Keywords
Big five inventory, Interprofessional education, Learning styles, Personality, Undergraduate medical education
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:rkh:diva-3475 (URN)10.1186/s12909-020-02327-7 (DOI)000587969300004 ()33129339 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85094864148 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Stockholm County Council, 20170615
Available from: 2020-11-02 Created: 2020-11-02 Last updated: 2022-02-10Bibliographically approved
Bexelius, T., Lachmann, H., Järnbert-Pettersson, H., Kalén, S., Möller, R. & Ponzer, S. (2019). Stress among medical students during clinical courses: a longitudinal study using contextual activity sampling system. International Journal of Medical Education, 10, 68-74
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Stress among medical students during clinical courses: a longitudinal study using contextual activity sampling system
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2019 (English)In: International Journal of Medical Education, E-ISSN 2042-6372, Vol. 10, p. 68-74Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: To investigate medical students’ experiences of stress and other emotions related to their professional roles, as defined by the CanMEDS framework, by using the Contextual Activity Sampling System (CASS).

Methods: Ninety-eight medical students agreed to participate of whom 74 completed this longitudinal cohort study. Data was collected between 6th and 8th term via CASS methodology: A questionnaire was e-mailed to the participants every 3rd week (21questionnaires/measurements) during clinical rotations and scientific project work term. Emotions were measured by a 7-point Likert scale (e.g., maximum stress = 7). Answers were registered through mobile technology. We used a linear mixed-model regression approach to study the association between stress over time in relation to socio-demographic and learning activities related to CanMEDS roles.

Results: Participants completed 1390 questionnaires. Mean stress level over all time points was 3.6. Stress was reported as highest during the scientific project term. Learning activities related to ‘Communicator,’ ‘Collaborator,’ ‘Scholar,’ ‘Manager’ and ‘Professional’ were associated with increased stress, e.g. ’Scholar’ increased stress with 0.5 points (t=3.91, p<0.001). A reduced level of stress was associated with ’Health Advocate’ of 0.39 points (t=-2.15, p=0.03). No association between perceived stress and demographic factors, such as gender or age was found.

Conclusions: An association between different learning activities related to CanMEDS Roles and feelings of stress were noted. The CASS methodology was found to be useful when observing learning experiences and might support educational development by identifying course activities linked to stress.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IJME, 2019
Keywords
medical students, stress, canmeds, contextual activity sampling system, cass
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:rkh:diva-2767 (URN)10.5116/ijme.5c94.9391 (DOI)30940791 (PubMedID)
Funder
Stockholm County Council
Available from: 2019-04-04 Created: 2019-04-04 Last updated: 2022-09-15Bibliographically approved
Dyar, A., Lachmann, H., Stenfors, T. & Kiessling, A. (2019). The learning environment on a student ward: an observational study. Perspectives on medical education, 8(5), 276-283
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The learning environment on a student ward: an observational study
2019 (English)In: Perspectives on medical education, ISSN 2212-2761, Vol. 8, no 5, p. 276-283Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

INTRODUCTION: Worldwide, a growing number of healthcare students require clinical environments for learning. Some wards have become adapted 'student wards' to meet this demand. Benefits have been reported from the students', supervisors' and patients' perspectives. There is no definition of a student ward, and little research on what the term means. A deeper understanding of the characteristics of student wards is needed to support their use. The aim of this study is to describe what characterises the learning environment on one student ward.

METHODS: An ethnographic approach was used for an observational study on a student ward in a hospital in Sweden. Student nurses, supervisors and others on the ward were observed. Field notes were thematically analysed.

RESULTS: Four themes were identified: 'Student-led learning' described students learning by actively performing clinical tasks and taking responsibility for patients and for their own learning. 'Learning together' described peer learning and supervision. 'Staff's approach to learning' described personalised relationships between the students and staff and the build-up of trust, the unified inter-professional approach to teaching, and the supervisors' motivation for teaching and for their own learning. 'Student-dedicated space' described the effect of the student room on the learning environment.

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: This study describes the characteristics of a student ward that centred around a community of practice that shared a view of learning as a priority, allowing staff to provide clinical care without compromising students' learning. This qualitative study at a single centre lays the groundwork for future research into other student wards.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bohn Stafleu van Loghum, 2019
Keywords
Observation, Peer learning, Professional education, Student ward
National Category
Nursing Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:rkh:diva-3048 (URN)10.1007/s40037-019-00538-3 (DOI)31595430 (PubMedID)
Funder
Stockholm County Council
Available from: 2019-10-15 Created: 2019-10-15 Last updated: 2020-06-02Bibliographically approved
Williams, B., Lynch, M., Olaussen, A., Lachmann, H., Kalén, S. & Ponzer, S. (2018). Translation and psychometric evaluation of the Swedish version of the Interdisciplinary Education Perception Scale. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 32(1), 63-68
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Translation and psychometric evaluation of the Swedish version of the Interdisciplinary Education Perception Scale
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Interprofessional Care, ISSN 1356-1820, E-ISSN 1469-9567, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 63-68Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Interprofessional education (IPE) is widely accepted worldwide, as a key part of training for health professionals and critical to an effective, patient-centred healthcare system. Several tools have been developed to evaluate IPE programmes and interventions globally. Many of the widely-used tools have been successfully adapted to suit specific cohorts and different languages; the Interdisciplinary Education Perception Scale (IEPS), however, has not yet been translated and validated for use in Sweden. The aim of this study was to translate the IEPS into Swedish and validate the psychometric properties of this new version. The 12-item IEPS underwent translation into Swedish and back-translation into English by suitable independent translators to ensure items retained their meaning. The new Swedish version was completed by 164 medical and nursing, occupational therapy and physiotherapy students on clinical placements in Stockholm. Principal Axis Factoring (PAF) and Oblique Oblimin Rotation confirmed a three-factor structure, that explained 77.4% of variance. The new 10-item Swedish version IEPS displayed good internal consistency with an overall Cronbach's alpha of a = .88 and subscale values of .89, .88 and .66. The exclusion of two-items limits the transferability of this scale; however, the factor makeup was very similar to the original 12-item English version. It is suspected that minor differences were due to unavoidable deviations in meaning following translation (i.e. certain English words have no equivalent in Swedish). Nevertheless, the results imply that the Swedish version of the IEPS is a valid and reliable tool for assessing students' perceptions and attitudes towards IPE within the Swedish health education system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2018
Keywords
IEPS, Interprofessional, Sweden, education collaboration, psychometrics, translation
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:rkh:diva-2766 (URN)10.1080/13561820.2017.1381077 (DOI)29058508 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-10-26 Created: 2019-04-04 Last updated: 2021-09-09Bibliographically approved
Lachmann, H. (2017). Interprofessionellt lärande i verksamhetsförlagd utbildning (1ed.). In: Margret Lepp & Janeth Leksell (Ed.), Vårdpedagogik: vårdens kärnkompetenser från ett pedagogiskt perspektiv (pp. 218-234). Stockholm: Liber
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interprofessionellt lärande i verksamhetsförlagd utbildning
2017 (Swedish)In: Vårdpedagogik: vårdens kärnkompetenser från ett pedagogiskt perspektiv / [ed] Margret Lepp & Janeth Leksell, Stockholm: Liber, 2017, 1, p. 218-234Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Liber, 2017 Edition: 1
National Category
Other Health Sciences Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:rkh:diva-2760 (URN)978-91-47-11229-6 (ISBN)
Available from: 2017-03-21 Created: 2019-04-04Bibliographically approved
Kalén, S., Lachmann, H., Varttinen, M., Möller, R., Bexelius, T. S. & Ponzer, S. (2017). Medical students' experiences of their own professional development during three clinical terms: a prospective follow-up study. BMC Medical Education, 17(1), Article ID 47.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Medical students' experiences of their own professional development during three clinical terms: a prospective follow-up study
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2017 (English)In: BMC Medical Education, E-ISSN 1472-6920, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 47Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: A modern competency-based medical education is well implemented globally, but less is known about how the included learning activities contribute to medical students' professional development. The aim of this study was to explore Swedish medical students' perceptions of the offered learning activities and their experiences of how these activities were connected to their professional development as defined by the CanMEDS framework.

METHODS: A prospective mixed method questionnaire study during three terms (internal medicine, scientific project, and surgery) in which data were collected by using contextual activity sampling system, i.e., the students were sent a questionnaire via their mobile phones every third week. All 136 medical students in the 6th of 11 terms in the autumn of 2012 were invited to participate. Seventy-four students (54%) filled in all of the required questionnaires (4 per term) for inclusion, the total number of questionnaires being 1335. The questionnaires focused on the students' experiences of learning activities, especially in relation to the CanMEDS Roles, collaboration with others and emotions (positive, negative, optimal experiences, i.e., "flow") related to the studies. The quantitative data was analysed statistically and, for the open-ended questions, manifest inductive content analysis was used.

RESULTS: Three of the CanMEDs Roles, Medical Expert, Scholar, and Communicator, were most frequently reported while the four others, e.g., the role Health Advocate, were less common. Collaboration with students from other professions was most usual during the 8th term. Positive emotions and experience of "flow" were most often reported during clinical learning activities while the scientific project term was connected with more negative emotions.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that it is possible, even during clinical courses, to visualise the different areas of professional competence defined in the curriculum and connect these competences to the actual learning activities. Students halfway through their medical education considered the most important learning activities for their professional development to be connected with the Roles of Medical Expert, Scholar, and Communicator. Given that each of the CanMEDS Roles is at least moderately important during undergraduate medical education, the entire spectrum of the Roles should be emphasised and developed during the clinical years.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central, 2017
Keywords
Academic emotions, CanMEDS, Contextual activity sampling, Medical students, Professional development
National Category
Learning Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:rkh:diva-2758 (URN)10.1186/s12909-017-0886-3 (DOI)28241756 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-04-04 Created: 2019-04-04 Last updated: 2022-02-10Bibliographically approved
Lachmann, H., Fossum, B., Johansson, U.-B., Karlgren, K. & Ponzer, S. (2014). Promoting reflection by using contextual activity sampling: a study on students' interprofessional learning. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 28(5), 400-406
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Promoting reflection by using contextual activity sampling: a study on students' interprofessional learning
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2014 (English)In: Journal of Interprofessional Care, ISSN 1356-1820, E-ISSN 1469-9567, Vol. 28, no 5, p. 400-406Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Abstract Students' engagement and reflection on learning activities are important during interprofessional clinical practice. The contextual activity sampling system (CASS) is a methodology designed for collecting data on experiences of ongoing activities by frequent distribution of questionnaires via mobile phones. The aim of this study was to investigate if the use of the CASS methodology affected students' experiences of their learning activities, readiness for interprofessional learning, academic emotions and experiences of interprofessional team collaboration. Student teams, consisting of 33 students in total from four different healthcare programs, were randomized into an intervention group that used CASS or into a control group that did not use CASS. Both quantitative (questionnaires) and qualitative (interviews) data were collected. The results showed that students in the intervention group rated teamwork and collaboration significantly higher after than before the course, which was not the case in the control group. On the other hand, the control group reported experiencing more stress than the intervention group. The qualitative data showed that CASS seemed to support reflection and also have a positive impact on students' experiences of ongoing learning activities and interprofessional collaboration. In conclusion, the CASS methodology provides support for students in their understanding of interprofessional teamwork.

Keywords
Collaboration, Content analysis, Interprofessional education, Interprofessional practice, Interviews, Mixed methods, Team-based practice
National Category
Learning Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:rkh:diva-2761 (URN)10.3109/13561820.2014.907777 (DOI)24754545 (PubMedID)
Note

As manuscript in dissertation with title Contextual activity sampling: Promoting reflection on interprofessional experiences.

Available from: 2014-04-29 Created: 2019-04-04 Last updated: 2019-04-05Bibliographically approved
Lachmann, H., Ponzer, S., Johansson, U.-B., Benson, L. & Karlgren, K. (2013). Capturing students' learning experiences and academic emotions at an interprofessional training ward. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 27(2), 137-145
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Capturing students' learning experiences and academic emotions at an interprofessional training ward
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2013 (English)In: Journal of Interprofessional Care, ISSN 1356-1820, E-ISSN 1469-9567, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 137-145Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An important goal for interprofessional education (IPE) in clinical settings is to support healthcare students in collaboratively developing their understanding of interprofessional teamwork. The aim of this study was to investigate students' learning experiences and academic emotions as they occur in actual context in relation to collaborative and trialogical activities during a clinical IPE course. The contextual activity sampling system methodology was used to collect data via mobile phones. Thirty-seven healthcare students (medical, nursing, physiotherapy and occupational therapy) reported their experiences, learning activities and academic emotions several times a day via their mobile phones during their 2-week course at an interprofessional training ward (IPTW). The results provided understanding of the students' experiences of their academic emotions and how they created new knowledge collaboratively. These collaborative knowledge creation activities occurred mostly when students from different professions were collaborating as a team (e.g. discussing patient care or participating in a ward round) and were also significantly related to optimal experiences, i.e. "flow" (high challenge in combination with high competence). In conclusion, these results emphasize the importance of collaboration among students during IPTW courses. Our results might help to optimize the design of IPE learning activities in clinical healthcare contexts

Keywords
Interprofessional collaboration, Interprofessional education, Interprofessional learning, Collaboration, Collaborative outcomes, Team-based practice, Work-based learning
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:rkh:diva-2762 (URN)10.3109/13561820.2012.724124 (DOI)23043548 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2012-03-14 Created: 2019-04-04 Last updated: 2019-04-04Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9435-5950

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