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Åhs, J., Eriksson, H. & Mazaheri, M. (2024). Distant suffering: A concept analysis. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 151
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Distant suffering: A concept analysis
2024 (English)In: International Journal of Nursing Studies, ISSN 0020-7489, E-ISSN 1873-491X, Vol. 151Article, review/survey (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Patients who are suffering may be commonly encountered in health care. The growing use of telehealth implies that encounters with patients who are suffering may increasingly take place at a distance. "Distant suffering" is a concept coined within sociology to describe the suffering of far-away others. It is conceptualized as a paradox, as distance changes the relation between the witness of suffering and the suffering encountered. Impacts may include a potential detriment to the sufferer and ethical implications for the witness. To explore the concept of distant suffering and any relevance, implications, or important avenues for potential research within the healthcare sciences. Rodgers' evolutionary concept analysis. Databases of Web of Science, Medline, CINAHL and PsycInfo were searched for the terms "distant suffering" or "mediated suffering". Attributes, surrogate or related terms, antecedents, consequences, and uses of the concept were extracted and synthesized. Thirty articles published within the past ten years were selected for review from the search results. "Distant suffering" was characterized as comprising 1) mediated far-away suffering, 2) a "recognizer" or witness, and 3) a potential role of a moderator. Antecedents include shared understandings and socially-influenced responses. Consequences include responses like empathy, compassion, pity, also indifference, cynicism and compassion fatigue. Further research to explore distant suffering from healthcare sciences' perspective could uncover valuable insights for those suffering, for healthcare workers, and any who are exposed to it. An improved understanding of how distant suffering is conveyed and moderated could enable targeted reduction of exposure or improve response to distant suffering. Such knowledge could help diminish negative consequences for those suffering, for healthcare workers who are caring at a distance for those suffering, or for others who encounter distant suffering in their occupations or in daily life via media, social media, or digital communications. New analysis finds that exposure to distant suffering may have important implications for health and health care.

Keywords
Suffering, Concept Analysis, Emotions, Patients – Psychosocial Factors, Empathy, Attitude to Illness, Telehealth, Sociology, Compassion Fatigue, Psychological Distress, Systematic Review, Medline, CINAHL Database, Psycinfo, Human
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:rkh:diva-4776 (URN)10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2023.104672 (DOI)
Available from: 2024-02-12 Created: 2024-02-12 Last updated: 2024-02-20Bibliographically approved
Marlow, M., Skeen, S., Grieve, C. M., Carvajal, L., Åhs, J. W., Kohrt, B. A., . . . Tomlinson, M. (2023). Detecting Depression and Anxiety Among Adolescents in South Africa: Validity of the isiXhosa Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7.. Journal of Adolescent Health, 72(S1), S52-S60
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Detecting Depression and Anxiety Among Adolescents in South Africa: Validity of the isiXhosa Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7.
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Adolescent Health, ISSN 1054-139X, E-ISSN 1879-1972, Vol. 72, no S1, p. S52-S60Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

PURPOSE: Screening tools such as the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) could potentially be used in resource-limited settings to identify adolescents who need mental health support. We examined the criterion validity of the isiXhosa versions of the PHQ-9 and GAD-7 in detecting depression and anxiety among adolescents (10-19 years) in South Africa.

METHODS: Adolescents were recruited from the general population and from nongovernmental organizations working with adolescents in need of mental health support. The PHQ-9 and GAD-7 were culturally adapted and translated into isiXhosa and administered to 302 adolescents (56.9% female). The Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia was administered by trained clinicians as the gold standard diagnostic measure for depression and anxiety.

RESULTS: For the PHQ-9, the area under the curve was 0.88 for the full sample of adolescents (10-19 years old). A score of ≥10 had 91% sensitivity and 76% specificity for detecting adolescents with depression. For the GAD-7, the area under the curve was 0.78, and cutoff scores with an optimal sensitivity-specificity balance were low (≥6). A score of ≥6 had 67% sensitivity and 75% specificity for detecting adolescents with anxiety.

DISCUSSION: The culturally adapted isiXhosa version of the PHQ-9 can be used as a valid measure for depression in adolescents. Further research on the GAD-7 for use with adolescents is recommended.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Adolescents, Anxiety, Depression, Diagnostic assessment, GAD-7, Low- and middle-income countries, Mental health, PHQ-9, Screening, Validity
National Category
Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:rkh:diva-4388 (URN)10.1016/j.jadohealth.2022.09.013 (DOI)36274021 (PubMedID)
Funder
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, INV-001395
Available from: 2022-10-25 Created: 2022-10-25 Last updated: 2023-01-03Bibliographically approved
Åhs, J., Ranheim, A., Mattelin, E., Eriksson, H. & Mazaheri, M. (2023). Distance in Distant Care: Qualitative Content Analysis of Providers' Experiences in Tele-Mental Care. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 25, Article ID e38568.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Distance in Distant Care: Qualitative Content Analysis of Providers' Experiences in Tele-Mental Care
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Medical Internet Research, E-ISSN 1438-8871, Vol. 25, article id e38568Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
JMIR Publications, 2023
Keywords
telehealth, telemedicine, patient care, mental health, care delivery, communication technology, patient-provider, provider, provider experience, health care professional, experience, content analysis, qualitative
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:rkh:diva-4668 (URN)10.2196/38568 (DOI)001009080900002 ()
Available from: 2023-08-23 Created: 2023-08-23 Last updated: 2024-01-17Bibliographically approved
Åhs, J., Ranheim, A., Eriksson, H. & Mazaheri, M. (2023). Encountering suffering in digital care: a qualitative study of providers' experiences in telemental health care. BMC Health Services Research, 23(1), Article ID 418.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Encountering suffering in digital care: a qualitative study of providers' experiences in telemental health care
2023 (English)In: BMC Health Services Research, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 23, no 1, article id 418Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Encountering patients who are suffering is common in health care, and particularly when providing mental health care. Telehealth technologies are increasingly used to provide mental health care, yet little is known about the experiences of providers when encountering patients who are suffering within remote care. The present study explored health care providers' lived experiences of encountering patient suffering during telemental health care.

METHODS: A qualitative phenomenological approach was used to uncover participants' experiences. In-depth interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of physicians, psychologists, and therapists who used telemental health in varied clinical practices in Sweden. Data were analyzed using descriptive phenomenology.

RESULTS: Telehealth care with patients who were suffering was experienced by providers as loose connections, both literally in compromised functioning of the technology and figuratively in a compromised ability connecting emotionally with patients. Providers' lived experiences were explicated into the following aspects: insecurity in digital practice, inaccessibility of the armamentarium, and conviction in the value of telehealth care. Interpersonal connection between patient and provider is necessary. Worry and guilt arose for providers with fears that technology would not work, patient status was deteriorated, or the care needed could not be delivered. Providers overcame barriers in telehealth encounters, and expressed they perceived that patients appreciated the care received, and through it found relief.

CONCLUSIONS: This study brings an understanding of experiences in providing telemental care for patients who are suffering. Providers experience challenges in connecting with patients, and in accessing tools needed to enable reaching the goals of the caring encounter. Efforts to ensure functioning of technology, comfort with its use, and accessibility of tools might be some accommodations to support providers for successful and rewarding telehealth care encounters.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central (BMC), 2023
Keywords
Lived experience, Mental health providers, Patient care, Phenomenology, Suffering, Telehealth
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:rkh:diva-4605 (URN)10.1186/s12913-023-09367-x (DOI)37127655 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2023-05-08 Created: 2023-05-08 Last updated: 2023-05-08Bibliographically approved
Carvajal-Velez, L., Harris Requejo, J., Åhs, J., Idele, P., Adewuya, A., Cappa, C., . . . Kohrt, B. A. (2023). Increasing Data and Understanding of Adolescent Mental Health Worldwide: UNICEF’s Measurement of Mental Health Among Adolescents at the Population Level Initiative. Journal of Adolescent Health, 72(S1), S12-S14
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Increasing Data and Understanding of Adolescent Mental Health Worldwide: UNICEF’s Measurement of Mental Health Among Adolescents at the Population Level Initiative
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Adolescent Health, ISSN 1054-139X, E-ISSN 1879-1972, Vol. 72, no S1, p. S12-S14Article in journal, Editorial material (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:rkh:diva-4166 (URN)10.1016/j.jadohealth.2021.03.019 (DOI)36229402 (PubMedID)
Funder
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
Available from: 2021-12-15 Created: 2021-12-15 Last updated: 2023-02-22Bibliographically approved
Carvajal, L., Åhs, J. W., Requejo, J. H., Kieling, C., Lundin, A., Kumar, M., . . . Kohrt, B. A. (2023). Measurement of Mental Health Among Adolescents at the Population Level: A Multicountry Protocol for Adaptation and Validation of Mental Health Measures. Journal of Adolescent Health, 72(1S), S27-S33
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measurement of Mental Health Among Adolescents at the Population Level: A Multicountry Protocol for Adaptation and Validation of Mental Health Measures
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Adolescent Health, ISSN 1054-139X, E-ISSN 1879-1972, Vol. 72, no 1S, p. S27-S33Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: Mental disorders are among the leading causes of disability among adolescents aged 10-19 years. However, data on prevalence of mental health conditions are extremely sparse across low- and middle-income countries, even though most adolescents live in these settings. This data gap is further exacerbated because few brief instruments for adolescent mental health are validated in these settings, making population-level measurement of adolescent mental health especially cumbersome to carry out. In response, the UNICEF has undertaken the Measurement of Mental Health Among Adolescents at the Population Level (MMAP) initiative, validating open-access brief measures and encouraging data collection in this area.

Methods: This protocol presents the MMAP mixed-methods approach for cultural adaptation and clinical validation of adolescent mental health data collection tools across settings. Qualitative activities include an initial translation and adaptation, review by mental health experts, focus-group discussions with adolescents, cognitive interviews, synthesis of findings, and back-translation. An enriched sample of adolescents with mental health problems is then interviewed with the adapted tool, followed by gold-standard semistructured diagnostic interviews.

Results: The study protocol is being implemented in Belize, Kenya, Nepal, and South Africa and includes measures for anxiety, depression, functional limitations, suicidality, care-seeking, and connectedness. Analyses, including psychometrics, will be conducted individually by country and combined across settings to assess the MMAP methodological process.

Discussion:This protocol contributes to closing the data gap on adolescent mental health conditions by providing a rigorous process of cross-cultural adaptation and validation of data collection approaches.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Transcultural adaptation, Translation, Gold standard validation, Adolescent, Anxiety, Depression, Assessments, Developing countries, Mental health, Questionnaires, Validation, Protocol
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:rkh:diva-4430 (URN)10.1016/j.jadohealth.2021.11.035 (DOI)36528384 (PubMedID)
Funder
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
Available from: 2022-12-14 Created: 2022-12-14 Last updated: 2022-12-20Bibliographically approved
Carvajal, L., Ottman, K., Åhs, J., Li, G. N., Simmons, J., Chorpita, B., . . . Kohrt, B. A. (2023). Translation and Adaptation of the Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale: A Qualitative Study in Belize. Journal of Adolescent Health, 72(S1), S34-S39
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Translation and Adaptation of the Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale: A Qualitative Study in Belize
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Adolescent Health, ISSN 1054-139X, E-ISSN 1879-1972, Vol. 72, no S1, p. S34-S39Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Adapting data collection instruments using transcultural translation and adaptation processes is essential to ensure that respondents comprehend the items and the original meaning is retained across languages and contexts. This approach is central to UNICEF's efforts to expand the use of standard data collection tools across settings and close the global data gap on adolescent mental health.

METHODS: We conducted transcultural translation and adaptation processes in Belize using the Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS). Items from the original scale were translated into Belizean English and Kriol, reviewed by local mental health experts, and discussed in focus groups. Cognitive interviews were conducted with adolescents and parents. The information collected was analyzed with cultural equivalence domains: comprehensibility, acceptability, relevance, completeness, and technical equivalence. Bilingual discussions of findings informed the final item wordings, and the adapted tool was back-translated.

RESULTS: Adaptation of terms and specific expressions were done to improve comprehensibility and to ensure the appropriate clinical meaning. For example, the expression 'feeling scared' was perceived to imply immaturity or threaten masculinity and was adapted to 'feeling afraid.' Expressions like "shaky" were modified to "trimble" in Kriol. Statements were reworded as questions to enhance acceptability and comprehensibility.

DISCUSSION: A culturally adapted version of the RCADS was developed for use among adolescents in Belize in Belizean English and Kriol. The transcultural translation and adaptation procedure can be applied for other settings or tools to design contextual adaptations of mental health instruments prior to their validation or use in new settings.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Adolescents, Anxiety, Depression, Measurement, Mental health, RCADS, Transcultural translation
National Category
Nursing Pediatrics Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:rkh:diva-4367 (URN)10.1016/j.jadohealth.2022.05.026 (DOI)35934586 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85135517024 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
Available from: 2022-08-09 Created: 2022-08-09 Last updated: 2023-01-03Bibliographically approved
Tele, A. K., Carvajal, L., Nyongesa, V., Åhs, J. W., Mwaniga, S., Kathono, J., . . . Kumar, M. (2023). Validation of the English and Swahili Adaptation of the Patient Health Questionnaire–9 for Use Among Adolescents in Kenya. Journal of Adolescent Health, 72(S1), S61-S70
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Validation of the English and Swahili Adaptation of the Patient Health Questionnaire–9 for Use Among Adolescents in Kenya
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Adolescent Health, ISSN 1054-139X, E-ISSN 1879-1972, Vol. 72, no S1, p. S61-S70Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: Our study aimed to validate culturally adapted English and Swahili versions of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) for use with adolescents in Kenya. Criterion validity was determined with clinician-administered diagnostic interviews using the Kiddie Schedule of Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia.

Methods: A total of 250 adolescents comprising 148 (59.2%) females and 102 (40.8%) males aged 10-19 years (mean = 14.76; standard deviation = 2.78) were recruited. The PHQ-9 was administered to all respondents concurrently in English and Swahili. Adolescents were later interviewed by clinicians using Kiddie Schedule of Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia to determine the presence or absence of current symptoms of major depressive disorder. Sensitivity specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV), and likelihood ratios for various cut-off scores for PHQ-9 were analyzed using receiver operating characteristic curves.

Results: The internal consistency (Cronbach's α) for PHQ-9 was 0.862 for the English version and 0.834 for Swahili version. The area under the curve was 0.89 (95% confidence interval, 0.84-0.92) and 0.87 (95% confidence interval, 0.82-0.90) for English and Swahili version, respectively, on receiver operating characteristic analysis. A cut-off of ≥ 9 on the English-language version had a sensitivity of 95.0%, specificity of 73.0%, PPV of 0.23, and NPV of 0.99; a cut-off of ≥ 9 on the Swahili version yielded a sensitivity of 89.0%, specificity of 70.0%, PPV of 0.20, and NPV of 0.90.

Discussion: Psychometric properties were comparable across both English-adapted and Swahili-adapted version of the PHQ-9, are reliable, and valid instrument to detect major depressive disorder among adolescents which can be used in resource-limited settings for early identification of adolescents in need of mental health support.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Children and adolescents, Depression, Developing countries, Psychometrics, Screening, Validation
National Category
Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:rkh:diva-4429 (URN)10.1016/j.jadohealth.2022.10.003 (DOI)36376148 (PubMedID)
Funder
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, INV-001395
Available from: 2022-12-14 Created: 2022-12-14 Last updated: 2023-01-03Bibliographically approved
Carvajal-Velez, L., Åhs, J. W., Lundin, A., van den Broek, M., Simmons, J., Wade, P., . . . Kohrt, B. A. (2023). Validation of the Kriol and Belizean English Adaptation of the Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale for Use With Adolescents in Belize. Journal of Adolescent Health, 72(S1), S40-S51
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Validation of the Kriol and Belizean English Adaptation of the Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale for Use With Adolescents in Belize
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Adolescent Health, ISSN 1054-139X, E-ISSN 1879-1972, Vol. 72, no S1, p. S40-S51Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: To validate a culturally-adapted Kriol and Belizean English version of the Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) through comparison with clinical diagnoses made using the Kiddie Schedule of Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia.

Methods: Participants comprised of 256 adolescents aged 10-14 years and 15-19 years, who completed the adapted RCADS (10 depression items, 12 anxiety items) in one-on-one interviews, followed by a diagnostic assessment using Kiddie Schedule of Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia administered by trained clinicians. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, diagnostic odds ratios, area under the curve (AUC), and Youden's Index were calculated for RCADS cutoffs and scores on the total scale and anxiety and depression subscales.

Results: For adolescents aged 10-14 years (n = 161), the AUC was 0.72 for the full scale, 0.67 for anxiety subscale, and 0.76 for depression subscale. For adolescents aged 15-19 years (n = 95), the AUCs were 0.82, 0.77, and 0.83. Most depression items performed well in discriminating those with and without diagnoses. Separation anxiety items performed poorly. "Thoughts of death" were common even among adolescents not meeting diagnostic criteria. The RCADS depression subscale presented the strongest psychometric properties with adolescents aged 15-19 years (at cutoff of 13, sensitivity = 0.83, specificity = 0.77, positive predictive value = 0.47, negative predictive value = 0.95, odds ratio = 15.96).

Conclusion: The adapted RCADS-22 had acceptable categorization for adolescents aged 10-14 years and excellent categorization for adolescents aged 15-19 years; therefore, the tool is recommended for use among the latter age group. Based on sensitivity and specificity values at different cutoffs, guidance is provided to select different thresholds to suit clinical, public health, or other uses to detect and quantify adolescent depression and anxiety in Belize.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Gold standard validation, Clinical validation, Adolescent, Anxiety, Depression, Assessments, Developing countries, Mental health, Questionnaires, Validation, Psychometrics, RCADS, Belize
National Category
Pediatrics Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:rkh:diva-4428 (URN)10.1016/j.jadohealth.2022.10.002 (DOI)36400635 (PubMedID)
Funder
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, INV-001395
Available from: 2022-12-14 Created: 2022-12-14 Last updated: 2023-01-03
Hayes, J., Carvajal, L., Hijazi, Z., Åhs, J. W., Doraiswamy, P. M., El Azzouzi, F. A., . . . Wolpert, M. (2023). You Can't Manage What You Do Not Measure - Why Adolescent Mental Health Monitoring Matters. Journal of Adolescent Health, 72(1S), S8-S9
Open this publication in new window or tab >>You Can't Manage What You Do Not Measure - Why Adolescent Mental Health Monitoring Matters
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Adolescent Health, ISSN 1054-139X, E-ISSN 1879-1972, Vol. 72, no 1S, p. S8-S9Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:rkh:diva-4094 (URN)10.1016/j.jadohealth.2021.04.024 (DOI)36229393 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85112526665 (Scopus ID)
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Available from: 2021-08-27 Created: 2021-08-27 Last updated: 2023-01-03Bibliographically approved
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