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Heritability of gestational weight gain--a Swedish register-based twin study
Karolinska Institutet.ORCID-id: 0000-0002-7295-7341
Department of Social Research, Helsinki, Finland.
Karolinska Institutet.
University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
Vise andre og tillknytning
2015 (engelsk)Inngår i: Twin Research and Human Genetics, ISSN 1832-4274, E-ISSN 1839-2628, Vol. 18, nr 4, s. 410-8Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Gestational weight gain (GWG) is a complex trait involving intrauterine environmental, maternal environmental, and genetic factors. However, the extent to which these factors contribute to the total variation in GWG is unclear. We therefore examined the genetic and environmental influences on the variation in GWG in the first and second pregnancy in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twin mother-pairs. Further, we explored if any co-variance existed between factors influencing the variation in GWG of the mothers’ first and second pregnancies. By using Swedish nationwide record-linkage data, we identified 694 twin mother-pairs with complete data on their first pregnancy and 465 twin mother-pairs with complete data on their second pregnancy during 1982–2010. For a subanalysis, 143 twin mother-pairs had complete data on two consecutive pregnancies during the study period. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to assess the contribution of genetic, shared, and unique environmental factors to the variation in GWG. A bivariate Cholesky decomposition model was used for the subanalysis. We found that genetic factors explained 43% (95% CI: 36–51%) of the variation in GWG in the first pregnancy and 26% (95% CI: 16–36%) in the second pregnancy. The remaining variance was explained by unique environmental factors. Both overlapping and distinct genetic and unique environmental factors influenced GWG in the first and the second pregnancy. This study showed that GWG has a moderate heritability, suggesting that a large part of the variation in the trait can be explained by unique environmental factors.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
2015. Vol. 18, nr 4, s. 410-8
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:rkh:diva-2400DOI: 10.1017/thg.2015.38PubMedID: 26111621OAI: oai:DiVA.org:rkh-2400DiVA, id: diva2:1096021
Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-05-16 Laget: 2017-05-16 Sist oppdatert: 2017-05-17bibliografisk kontrollert
Inngår i avhandling
1. Pregnancy weight gain: family studies on the effects on offspring’s body size and blood pressure
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Pregnancy weight gain: family studies on the effects on offspring’s body size and blood pressure
2016 (engelsk)Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

Introduction: Increasing maternal weight gain during pregnancy, gestational weight gain (GWG), is associated with several adverse outcomes in the child, e.g. high birth weight, childhood overweight and obesity, as well as adult blood pressure (BP). Studies have also shown that specific periods of pregnancy might be more sensitive in terms of influencing these outcomes. However, the aforementioned associations could be explained by genetic and/or environmental factors which are shared between the mother and child. As far as we know, no studies have examined to what extent these genetic and environmental factors explain the variation in GWG.

Aims: The overall aim of this PhD thesis was therefore to investigate the possible associations between GWG and the children’s birth weight and body mass index (BMI) during childhood (study 2), and BP during early adulthood (study 3), while taking environmental and genetic factors shared between the mother and child into account (within the twin/sibling pairs). The current thesis also aimed at exploring how much of the variation in GWG which is determined by genetic (the heritability) and both unique and common environmental factors (study 1).

Methods and Results: Study 1 was a register-based twin study with Swedish female monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs with children born 1982-1989 and 1992- 2010. Genetic factors accounted for 43% of the variation in GWG in the first pregnancy (N = 694 twin mother-pairs) and 26% in the second pregnancy (N = 465 twin mother-pairs). Unique environmental factors explained the remaining variation in GWG. Studies 2 and 3 were both prospective cohort studies, where study 2 was based on a data-collection of Swedish MZ twin mothers born 1962 to 1975 and their children (N = 82 twin mother-pairs), and study 3 was register-based and included Swedish male sibling pairs born 1982-1989 (N = 4908 brother pairs). In study 2, the results indicated that total, and possibly also second and third trimester weight gain, were associated with birth weight in the offspring within the twin pairs in the fully adjusted model. In terms of GWG and offspring weight and BMI during infancy and childhood, no associations were found. In study 3, no significant associations were found between GWG and systolic BP, or diastolic BP, or the offspring’s risk of hypertension, neither within nor between the sibling pairs.

Conclusions: This thesis shows that the total GWG, and specifically weight gain during the second and third trimester, seem to be positively associated with offspring birth weight, but no effects were seen for BMI during infancy and childhood. However, due to the limited sample size, this requires further investigation. Moreover, no association was found between total GWG and the male sibling pairs’ BP at the age of 18 years. The variation in GWG seems to be largely explained by the mother’s unique environment during pregnancy and to a smaller degree by genetic factors.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Stockholm: Karolinska Institutet, 2016
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:rkh:diva-2402 (URN)978-91-7676-355-1 (ISBN)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-05-17 Laget: 2017-05-17 Sist oppdatert: 2017-05-17bibliografisk kontrollert

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