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Chronic stress induces a hyporeactivity of the autonomic nervous system in response to acute mental stressor and impairs cognitive performance in business executives
Federal University of Uberlandia, Uberlandia, Brazil.
2015 (English)In: PLoS ONE, Vol. 10, no 3, article id e0119025Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The present study examined the incidence of chronic stress in business executives (109 subjects: 75 male and 34 female) and its relationship with cortisol levels, cognitive performance, and autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity after an acute mental stressor. Blood samples were collected from the subjects to measure cortisol concentration. After the sample collection, the subjects completed the Lipp Inventory of Stress Symptoms for Adults and the Stroop Color-Word Test to evaluate stress and cognitive performance levels, respectively. Saliva samples were collected prior to, immediately after, and five minutes after the test. The results revealed that 90.1% of the stressed subjects experienced stress phases that are considered chronic stress. At rest, the subjects with chronic stress showed higher cortisol levels, and no gender differences were observed. No differences were found between the stressed and non-stressed subjects regarding salivary amylase activity prior to test. Chronic stress also impaired performance on the Stroop test, which revealed higher rates of error and longer reaction times in the incongruent stimulus task independently of gender. For the congruent stimulus task of the Stroop test, the stressed males presented a higher rate of errors than the non-stressed males and a longer reaction time than the stressed females. After the acute mental stressor, the non-stressed male group showed an increase in salivary alpha-amylase activity, which returned to the initial values five minutes after the test; this ANS reactivity was not observed in the chronically stressed male subjects. The ANS responses of the non-stressed vs stressed female groups were not different prior to or after the Stroop test. This study is the first to demonstrate a blunted reactivity of the ANS when male subjects with chronic psychological stress were subjected to an acute mental stressor, and this change could contribute to impairments in cognitive performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 10, no 3, article id e0119025
Keywords [en]
Psychological stress, Cortisol, Stroop test, Cognitive impairment, Executives, Catecholamines, Reaction time, Saliva
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Psychology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:rkh:diva-2787DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0119025OAI: oai:DiVA.org:rkh-2787DiVA, id: diva2:1302493
Note

Funding: This study was supported by grants from the funding agency FAPEMIG (Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais - grant nº. APQ 01347/08). TVSS, MMD, and OLB received graduate fellowships from CNPq (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Available from: 2019-04-04 Created: 2019-04-04 Last updated: 2019-04-05Bibliographically approved

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Díaz, Miguel Mauricio

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CiteExportLink to record
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