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Patient-controlled versus nurse-controlled pain treatment after coronary artery bypass surgery
Department of Surgical Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Division of Cardiothoracic Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm.
2000 (English)In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 44, no 1, 43-47 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Pain after coronary artery bypass surgery persists for several days. A continuous intravenous infusion of an opioid adequately accomplishes good pain control in the intensive care unit, but it is often not suitable on the ordinary ward. Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) with intermittent injections delivered by one of the new devices now available could be an alternative to conventional nurse-controlled analgesia (NCA) based on intermittent injections. The aim was to compare these two techniques with respect to efficacy and the amount of opioid used.

Methods: Forty-eight patients randomly received PCA or NCA with ketobemidone following extubation after coronary artery bypass grafting. Drug consumption, pain assessment with the visual analogue score (VAS) and possible side effects were evaluated from extubation to the end of the second postoperative day.

Results: On the day of surgery the VAS scores did not differ between the groups. From the afternoon of the first postoperative day the VAS scores were higher in the NCA group with mean values at 3–4 out of 10 as compared with mean values around 2 in the PCA group (P<0.01). During the study period the patients in the PCA group received more ketobemidone as compared with the NCA group, 61.9±24.0 mg and 36.3±20.2 mg, respectively (P<0.01). Additional oral analgesics were used in 12 of the patients in the NCA group compared with none in the PCA group. The few side effects reported were equally distributed between the two groups.

Conclusion: PCA treatment after coronary artery bypass surgery resulted in better pain treatment and the use of more opioid without an increase in side effects compared with traditional NCA treatment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2000. Vol. 44, no 1, 43-47 p.
Keyword [en]
postoperative pain, postoperative analgesia, pain management, coronary artery bypass surgery, patient-controlled analgesia, opioids
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:rkh:diva-355DOI: 10.1034/j.1399-6576.2000.440108.xOAI: oai:DiVA.org:rkh-355DiVA: diva2:552133
Available from: 2012-09-13 Created: 2012-09-13 Last updated: 2014-07-08Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Pain treatment after surgery: With special reference to patient-controlled analgesia, early extubation and the use of paracetamol
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pain treatment after surgery: With special reference to patient-controlled analgesia, early extubation and the use of paracetamol
2004 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The introduction of general anaesthesia eliminated pain during surgical operations. After surgery, however, pain and postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) have remained a persistent problem for many patients. The need for analgesics varies widely among patients, therefore standardised treatment protocols are often insufficient pain treatment. Our studies dealt with the incidence and severity of pain and PONV after cardiac surgery. Study aims were to use and develop techniques for better evaluation of analgesic needs – visual analogue scale (VAS; 0 to 10) – and to develop a multimodal treatment of pain with opioids administered by the patients themselves – Patient Controlled Analgesia (PCA) – combined with paracetamol. In 48 patients, PCA was compared to conventional Nurse Controlled Analgesia (NCA) on the ward after coronary artery bypass surgery. PCA led to lower VAS-scores, i.e. less pain, with the use of more opioids. In 57 patients, pain after heart surgery was compared for extubation “early” at 3 hours or “late” at 7 hours after surgery. VAS-scores, PONV and the amount of opioids used were similar whether patients were extubated early or late. Rectal and intravenous (i.v.) administration of paracetamol was compared in 28 patients after heart surgery with respect to its bioavailability after repeated doses. Plasma concentrations after the first dose were low with rectal administration. After the fourth dose at 24 hours they reached a plateau. With i.v. administration concentrations were higher both after the first and fourth dose. Oral and i.v. paracetamol was compared in 80 patients after heart surgery and in 35 patients after day surgery (hernia repairs etc). After heart surgery the use of opioids was less in the i.v. group but VAS-scores and PONV were similar. A majority of the patients scored higher than 3 once or more than once on the 10 degree VAS-scale. In the oral group after day surgery, the plasma concentration increased in a dose-dependent manner but the scatter was wide and unpredictable as compared to the i.v. group. Conclusions: PCA is a promising alternative to NCA for adequate pain treatment in the wards after heart surgery and is “by itself” adjusted to the needs of the individual patient. There is no risk that early extubation after cardiac surgery is followed by more postoperative pain. Intravenous paracetamol seems to have an opioid-sparing potential after heart surgery. Our routines must be further developed and more studies are needed to find an optimal regimen, since pain treatment sometimes was insufficient in many patients receiving the combined therapy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Repro Print, 2004. 50 p.
Keyword
acetaminophen, analgesia, patient-controlled, analgesics, day surgery, heart surgery, opioid, ketobemidone, pain measurement, pain, postoperative, paracetamol, postoperative nausea and vomiting, visual analogue scale
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:rkh:diva-715 (URN)91-7140-134-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2004-12-17, Thoraxklinikens aula, Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset, Stockholm, 09:00
Available from: 2014-07-08 Created: 2013-09-03 Last updated: 2014-07-08Bibliographically approved

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