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  • 1.
    Abdulwassie, Nura
    et al.
    The Swedish Red Cross University College.
    Medin Restrepo, Julian
    The Swedish Red Cross University College.
    Aspekter i vårdmiljö som påverkar välmående: Allmän litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: When a person becomes unwell and develop an illness, they become vulnerable and more sensitive to the surrounding of the environment. The importance of health care has long been seen as a factor for well-being. The Nursing role as a caregiver is central and paramount and must have a holistic approach to care. AIM: The purpose was to describe the aspects of the healthcare environment that affect well-being. METHOD: A general literature study based on 21 articles with quantitative data was researched. RESULTS: The analysis process of data resulted in the emergence of two main themes with additional SUB themes. The senses- light, sound, smell. Physical environment that includes spaces, technical equipment, garden and design. CONCLUSION: It appears in our literature review, that different aspects of the healthcare environment can have both positive and negative effects in patients, close relatives and nurses' well-being. It is very important to quickly identify which aspects promote well-being and implement it in the healthcare environment to prevent that which leads to adverse effects. IMPLICATIONS: Nurses should have knowledge of the health care environment's effects in order to implement it in their work. By introducing these aspects, it is possible to create a better healthcare environment for patients, close relatives and nurses. More research into the roles of nurses in hospital is required.

  • 2.
    Abebe, Julia
    et al.
    The Swedish Red Cross University College.
    Gustafsson, Linn
    The Swedish Red Cross University College.
    Att leva med urininkontinens: En litteraturstudie ur kvinnans perspektiv2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Urinary incontinence is a common illness among women that has a negative effect on the mental health. The illness affects the everyday life and raise emotions such as dejection and anxiety. The most common risk factors for urinary incontinence are advanced age and post-delivery. Despite sufficient treatment options women do not seek help. Aim: To describe women’s experiences of living with urinary incontinence. Method: General literature study based on ten scientific articles with a qualitative approach. Findings: In order to control urinary leakage women planned the daily activities, adjusting to the unforeseeable nature of the disease. Urinary leakage interfered with their sex life and created feelings of shame and guilt. Urinary incontinence also hampered the ability to practice religion. Despite of the problems that urinary incontinence brought women did not see the disease as a legitimate problem and therefore did not seek care. Women who had sought help had experiences of not being taken seriously. Conclusion: Creating a positive experience of health care was of great importance to make women gain trust for the care system and therefore seek help. Urinary incontinence created feelings of shame and guilt which should be considered by caregivers when facing these women. In order to help these women knowledge is required about experiences of living with urinary incontinence. Relevance to clinical practice: Understanding how women experience living with urinary incontinence can bring caregivers required knowledge for nursing these women in the best way possible. Nurses should ask patients direct questions about urinary incontinence in order to legitimize it and gain knowledge about the disease impact on life.

  • 3.
    Adhan, Sophia
    et al.
    Red Cross University College of Nursing.
    Ahlinder, Susanne
    Red Cross University College of Nursing.
    Ung och söt: en litteraturstudie som beskriver faktorer inom omvårdnad som har betydelse för compliance hos ungdomar med diabetes typ 12010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To be young and have a chronic disease involving the most revolutionary change in life that can affect the whole family. Type 1 diabetes requires a lot from adolescents and their families, such as to follow a regular schedule for insulin intake, blood glucose monitors, to keep a special diet and keep a regular diary of blood glucose control, regular physical activity and to deal with high or low blood sugar. Compliance describes how patients with specific disease follow advice and prescriptions. Aim: The aim of this literature study was to describe the factors that are important for compliance in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Method: The study was based on 11 scientific articles in both quantitative and qualitative approach. Results: The study emphasized the importance of the nurse, the diabetic trained nurse, and that parents should in the management of diabetes care provide adequate information to adolescents. Adolescents who have a chronic disease achieved good compliance when they had the energy, willpower, motivation and felt responsibility. The factor that has the greatest impact on compliance in adolescents with type 1 diabetes is when family and friends can participate, then the medical establishments and in the third place comes self-care. Conclusion: The disease creates pressures on family and it’s important for the adolescence to have support from families, relatives and friends, nurses and doctors. Adolescents with type1 diabetes must in their daily lives try to keep a steady and stable blood sugar level in order to achieve good treatment outcomes. Exercises improve insulin sensitivity, increase the burning of glucose, reduce cardiovascular disease and prevent obesity.

  • 4.
    Adolfsson, Josefin
    et al.
    The Swedish Red Cross University College.
    Lindström, Jeanette
    The Swedish Red Cross University College.
    Postoperativa halsbesvär efter larynxmask: en jämförande pilotstudie2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The literature describes the laryngeal mask as a gentle alternative to intubation with endotracheal tube. Previous studies show that it is not unusual with throat discomfort postoperatively, in terms of sore throat and/or hoarseness/dysphonia. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence and nature of throat discomfort postoperatively after the use of two different laryngeal masks. The authors conducted a pilot study in which nineteen adult patients, both men and women, who received Pro-Breathe® or I-gel® laryngeal mask during anesthesia was included. The patients were interviewed 60 minutes and 24 hours after the laryngeal mask were removed. The interview consisted of two sealed questions about sore throat and hoarseness/dysphonia and one open question about how it felt in the throat. The open question showed that other types of throat discomforts occurred, including irritability, difficulty swallowing, dryness and swelling sensation. The method of the pilot-study was suitable to use and responded to the study's purpose. The results showed that different types of throat discomfort were common postoperatively. Eight out of ten patients who received Pro-Breathe® and seven out of nine patients who received I-gel® had some type of throat discomfort.

  • 5.
    Afeworki, Tigisthi
    et al.
    The Swedish Red Cross University College.
    Andersson, Frida
    The Swedish Red Cross University College.
    Alla Lika Olika: Vårdupplevelser för familjer där föräldrarna lever i en samkönad relation2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Historically, people in same-sex relationships, have had a vulnerable position in society and are often victims of discrimination. In Sweden there is a law that prohibits discrimination related to sexual orientation. The aim of the health care law is that the entire population should have an equal health. Despite this, the selfrated heath of those who live in a same-sex relationship is often lower than the rest of the population. In healthcare, there is often a heteronormative approach, which can lead to uncertainty for families with a different constellation than heterosexuals. Aim: The aim of this study was therefore to describe how families with parents who lives in same-sex realtionship experienced meeting within health care. Method: To describe this, a qualitative content analysis with descriptive approach of 10 scientific articles were done. This was then discussed by Levinas's theory of the Other. Results: The results that emerged were that most positive experiences were based in a comfortness, which was born out of an acceptance from the healthcare side. The adverse experiences tended to be imbued with an emotional alienation, which in turn to an increased vulnerability. Conclusion: For all families to feel welcome and obvious, it would probably be helpful if health personell should meet each individual and family with an open mind, without making any assumptions on their lives. As the personell makes open questions and are comfortable with the answers, it might make it easier for all families to be honest with their situation.

  • 6.
    Agduhr, Therese
    et al.
    The Swedish Red Cross University College.
    Grundh, Camilla
    The Swedish Red Cross University College.
    Psykisk stress och depressiva symtom hos tonåringar med diabetes typ 12011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Diabetes mellitus type 1 is a chronic disease that affects children and adolescents. Diabetes treatment demands the parents and teenagers to be aware of the treatment and the complications of the disease that might occur if there is low compliance to the treatment. Diabetes type 1 may create a psychological stress due to the importance of achieving satisfactory blood glucose values. Previous research shows that teenagers with type 1 diabetes tend to be at risk for developing depression. Being a teenager with type 1 diabetes and a contemporary diagnosis of depression impairs adherence to diabetes treatment. Purpose: To describe the factors that contribute to psychological stress and depressive symtoms among adolescentes with type 1 diabetes. Method: A literature review based on 13 scientific articles with quantitative data. Results: Six factors were presented as contributing to the fact that adolescents with type 1 diabetes may suffer from psychological stress and depressive symtoms. The factors were: blood sugar control, family conflicts related to diabetes, family structure, gender, and psychological stress and time from onset. Conclusion: Each one of the factors might end up in psychological stress and depressive symtoms, but each factor also as an isolated phenomenon for teenagers with type 1 diabetes. 

  • 7.
    Agefur, Anders
    et al.
    The Swedish Red Cross University College.
    Orshammar, Maria
    The Swedish Red Cross University College.
    Postoperativ shivering efter laparoskopisk kirurgi: en pilotstudie2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Shivering is a phenomenon that occurs in patients postoperatively. This means that the patient has uncontrollable muscles tremors which allow the patient to tremble or shiver in more than 15 seconds. Previous research shows that shivering have a negative effect on the body, but is also an unpleasant and unnecessary suffering for the patient. In step, with today's rapid development in technology, more and more patients undergo surgery with laparoscopic techniques. The pilot- study aimed to investigate the incidence of postoperative shivering in patients who were surgical operated with laparoscopic technique. This empirical study has been done with a quantitative approach. Self-designed questionnaires, together with an instrument were used in the data col-lection. The pilot study enrolled 33 patients in the age range 23-78 years. The results of the pilot study suggest that the presence of shivering was little in relation to laparoscopic surgery, six (n = 6) of all (n = 33) patients in the study was shivering. When the study is made of a small scale is the result not possible to generalize, but you can still see that certain stressors, such as anesthesia drugs may contribute the patient shivering.

  • 8.
    Agheli, Nahal
    et al.
    The Swedish Red Cross University College.
    Svensson, Johan
    The Swedish Red Cross University College.
    Patienters skattning av postoperativt illamående och kräkning efter robotassisterad prostatektomi2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Robotic assisted prostatectomy requires special circumstances for the patient regarding their positioning. They lay with the head tilted down 45 degrees in a position called Trendelenburg and their bowel is insufflated with carbon dioxide which both can cause nausea and vomiting. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of postoperative nausea and vomiting 24 hours after a robotic assisted prostatectomy. The patients valued their own nausea according to the MANE-scale which is a 7-pointed scale. The method used was a quantitative non- experimental pilot study. 20 patients participated in the study. The result showed that more than a third of the patients were nauseas or vomited within 24 hours after surgery. Of all 20 participants only one had received antiemetics in preventing purpose. The conclusion was that this study should be proceeded and a larger number of patients should be evaluated too see if there is a need to adjust the antiemethic prophylaxis for this patientgroup in the future.

  • 9.
    Agius, Angeline
    et al.
    The Swedish Red Cross University College.
    Lallet, Sophie
    The Swedish Red Cross University College.
    "Somatik inom psykiatrin är svårt": En intervjustudie om sjuksköterskors upplevelser av det somatiska omvårdnadsarbetet inom psykiatrisk slutenvård2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Patients with mental illness are at increased risk for physical illness. The number of patients that are admitted to the psychiatric inpatient care has increased over the past decade. The nurse should be able to observe and manage the patient's mental need as well as their physical needs. They should also have a holistic and ethical approach and their work should be based on evidence and science. Aim: The aim of this study was to explore nurses' experiences regarding the care of patients with somatic conditions in psychiatric inpatient care. Method: This study is an empirical study with a descriptive qualitative approach based on semi-structured interviews with four nurses working in a psychiatric inpatient ward. A manifest content analysis was used to analyze the interview material. Results: The analysis emerged into three main categories which describe the experiences of the nurses. The categories are: 1) Experiences of somatic care, 2) The importance of knowledge and 3) Cooperation between the psychiatric and somatic care. Conclusion: The majority of the nurses in this study felt that the somatic care was difficult. Their resources are limited when somatically ill patients are admitted to the ward. They also experience that it is hard to keep the knowledge updated regarding somatic care and that there is a need for training. The nurses also felt that health care was divided between the somatic and the psychiatric care, although some patients are in need of the expertise and professionalism from both the somatic and psychiatric care. Clinical significance: The results of the study may contribute to provide a greater understanding of which factors that influence nurses' experiences of the care of patients with somatic conditions in psychiatric inpatient care.

  • 10.
    Ahlin, Catharina
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Nursing and Care. Institutionen för medicin, Karolinska Institutet .
    Utveckling av instrument och bedömning av sjuksköterskestudenters kunskaper och färdigheter att genomföra venös provtagning och insättning av perifer venkateter2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Ahlin, Catharina
    et al.
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Nursing and Care. Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital.
    Klang-Söderkvist, B
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Johansson, E
    Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital.
    Björkholm, M
    Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital.
    Löfmark, A
    University of Gävle / Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Haugesund, Norway.
    Assessing nursing students' knowledge and skills in performing venepuncture and inserting peripheral venous catheters2017In: Nurse Education in Practice, ISSN 1471-5953, E-ISSN 1873-5223, Vol. 23, p. 8-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Venepuncture and the insertion of peripheral venous catheters are common tasks in health care, and training in these procedures is included in nursing programmes. Evidence of nursing students' knowledge and skills in these procedures is limited. The main aim of this study was to assess nursing students' knowledge and skills when performing venepuncture and inserting peripheral venous catheters. Potential associations between level of knowledge and skills, self-training, self-efficacy, and demographic characteristics were also investigated. The assessment was performed by lecturers at a university college in Sweden using the two previously tested instruments "Assess Venepuncture" and "Assess Peripheral Venous Catheter Insertion". Between 81% and 100% of steps were carried out correctly by the students. The step with the highest rating was "Uses gloves", and lowest rating was 'Informs the patients about the possibility of obtaining local anaesthesia'. Significant correlations between degree of self-training and correct performance were found in the group of students who registered their self-training. No associations between demographic characteristics and correct performances were found. Assessing that students have achieved adequate levels of knowledge and skills in these procedures at different levels of the nursing education is of importance to prevent complications and support patient safety.

  • 12.
    Ahlin, Catharina
    et al.
    Red Cross University College of Nursing.
    Klang-Söderkvist, Birgitta
    Brundin, Seija
    Hellström, Birgitta
    Pettersson, Karin
    Johansson, Eva
    Implementation of a written protocol for management of central venous access devices: a theoretical and practical education, including bedside examinations.2006In: Journal of Infusion Nursing, ISSN 1533-1458, E-ISSN 1539-0667, Vol. 29, no 5, p. 253/294 quiz-259/296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate registered nurses' (RN) compliance with a local clinical central venous access device (CVAD) protocol after completing an educational program and to determine RNs' perception of the program. Seventy-five RNs working in hematology participated in the educational part of the program. Sixty-eight RNs were examined while changing CVAD dressings or placing a Huber needle into a port on actual patients. Sixty percent of the RNs passed the examination and reported that the program increased their knowledge. The results indicated that the educational program could be recommended for use when implementing a new clinical protocol.

  • 13. Ahlin, Catharina
    et al.
    Löfmark, Anna
    Klang-Söderkvist, Birgitta
    Björkholm, Magnus
    Assessing nursing students´knowledge and skills in performing venepuncture and insertion of peripheral venous catheterArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Ahlin, Catharina
    et al.
    Red Cross University College of Nursing. Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Löfmark, Anna
    Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Gävle.
    Klang-Söderkvist, Birgitta
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Nursing Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm .
    Johansson, Eva
    Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Development of instruments for assessment of knowledge and skills in performing venepuncture and inserting peripheral venous catheters2013In: Journal of Vascular Access, ISSN 1129-7298, E-ISSN 1724-6032, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 364-372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Performing venepuncture is one of the most routinely performed invasive procedures in nursing care. The aim of this study was to develop instruments for the assessment of nursing students’ knowledge and skills when performing venepuncture and inserting a peripheral venous catheter. 
Methods: Two instruments were developed using the following steps. 1) Assessment items of importance for the procedures (venepuncture 48 items and peripheral venous catheter 51 items) were collected from focus groups including nurses, lecturers and patients. 2) The number of items was reduced using a method based on the Delphi method. Experts (n=51) reviewed the instruments in two rounds. The revised versions included 31 items for venepuncture and 33 items for peripheral venous catheter insertion. 3) Usability tests were conducted by nurses who tested the instruments to confirm that items were possible to assess. 4) Inter-rater reliability was assessed by twelve lecturers who in pairs, but independently of each other, used the instruments to assess 50 nursing students. 
Results: Proportion of agreement and Cohen’s kappa coefficient were calculated for each item to determine inter-rater reliability. Among the tested items for both instruments, the median proportion of agreement was 1 (range 0.66-1) and the median kappa was 0.52 (range 0.22-1). 
Conclusions: The instruments developed for assessing nursing students’ knowledge and skills of venepuncture and peripheral venous catheter insertion showed satisfactory inter-rater reliability.

  • 15.
    Akpudo, Judith
    et al.
    The Swedish Red Cross University College.
    Abdirahman, Rahma
    The Swedish Red Cross University College.
    En litteraturstudie om faktorer som inverkar på ensamkommande flyktingbarns psykiska hälsa2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Children and young adolescents have been immigrating alone for decades. However the number of unaccompanied refugee children has increased in recent years in Europe, mainly in countries such as Britain, Sweden, Austria and Norway. In 2008, 13.400 children and young adolescents, immigrated without their parents to Europe and about 80% of them applied for asylum. Sweden alone received about 3,578 unaccompanied refugee children in 2012 and it is expected to increase in coming years. It has also been reported that unaccompanied refugee children have an increased risk of psychiatric morbidity.

    Aims: The aim of this study was to highlight factors affecting unaccompanied refugee children's mental health.

    Method: This study is a literature review based on eight quantitative and two qualitative studies.

    Results: Five themes were identified: Traumatic experiences, the Migration Process, Environment, Age and Gender. Traumatic experiences were the most predominant factor that contributed to the increased risk of developing mental illness. Furthermore the migration process and the environment in the new country had a big impact on these children/adolescents well-being. Additional identified factors were gender and age.

    Conclusion: The result of this study showed that these children / adolescents have suffered from various traumatic experiences highly contributing to an increased risk of developing mental illness. It was also found that the migration process and the environment in the new country contributed to the increased risk of developing mental illness.

    Clinical significance: This study can provide a better understanding of unaccompanied refugee children's mental health and illuminate the factors affecting their psychological well-being. Having knowledge of these factors, may help the nurses to identify these children's care needs.

  • 16.
    Al ainy, Ghaith
    et al.
    Red Cross University College of Nursing.
    Nanyang, Rosemary
    Red Cross University College of Nursing.
    Kultur och omvårdnad: en litteraturstudie om kulturens betydelse i omvårdnadsarbetet2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has changed from a monoculture society to a multicultural society. A big part of the Swedish population today consists of people with different cultural backgrounds. These past decades the combination of the ageing population with different cultural backgrounds has put new demands on the Swedish health sector. This means that nurses today and in the future will meet patients from different cultures and with various health needs. Putting this in consideration it is significant to highlight the importance of cultural care and cultural competence in nursing encounter. Background: Patients with different ethnicity can be vulnerable because of problems they face when they move in the new country. Cultural differences and language barriers can be one of the obstacles for a patient to receive sufficient health care. Aim: The purpose of this study is to illustrate the importance of cultural care and cultural competence and the effects it has in nursing. Method: A literature study is designed to answer the aim of the study. Nine qualitative scientific articles and one article composed of both quantitate and qualitative are selected for the study. Results: seven categories were identified in the study: Communication and language barriers, education, cooperation with relatives, nurse’s attitudes, cultural competence, patient perspectives and nursing profession role. Conclusion: The result demonstrates categories in the studies that are important in caring for patients from other cultures. The study focused on highlighting the importance of culture in nursing. Most studies where about nurses but in the results section highlights include the patient's perspective, which essay writers feel that it can also help create awareness among all health care professionals in various fields.

  • 17.
    Albèr, Bjarne
    et al.
    The Swedish Red Cross University College.
    Jonsson, Leonard
    The Swedish Red Cross University College.
    Du får nog skylla dig själv, tror jag: En litteraturstudie om hur stereotyper och myter påverkar attityderna hos studenter till ett offer för våldtäkt2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In recent years, male victims of rape have gained increased attention, but the majority of the research still focuses on women. There are many myths and prejudices that affect our attitudes toward victims of rape. A victim suffers from both physical and psychological injuries. Health care personnel have to see beyond their prejudices to give a good and equal care towards all individuals. Aim: The aim of this study was to highlight the similarities and differences regarding students’ attitudes/beliefs towards male and female rape victims. Method: A literature review was written based on nine scientific articles with quantitative approach. Results: The results indicated that men generally have a higher acceptance of rape myths regarding both women and men. Men showed more negative attitudes towards victims, allocated more blame and less sympathy toward victims than women. Both gender and sexuality affect attitudes towards victims, women and homosexual men generally received more blame than heterosexual men and homosexual women. Male and female beliefs/perceptions of rape are also different and it turned out men and women produce various nuisances regarding rape. Education were proven to be a factors influencing attitudes, higher education indicates more positive attitudes towards the victim. Conclusion: Different kinds of myths exist and can be connected to negative attitudes towards a victim of rape. A difference between men and women exists when it comes to myth acceptance. Depending on the victims sexual orientation, sex and character the view upon it changes. Clinical implication: Knowledge about these myths and attitudes can be used for future education for personnel working within this area and to help preventing a secondary victimization for the victim.

  • 18.
    Alderete, Nina
    et al.
    Red Cross University College of Nursing.
    Nylander, Anna-Carin
    Red Cross University College of Nursing.
    Hundens hälsofrämjande effekter inom vård och omsorg: Djurassisterade Interventioner2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Poor health increases today in Sweden in several health areas. Disease or other health problems can lead to a life-changing situation for many individuals. Experiencing insecurity, loneliness, lack of support and affirmation in this context may contribute to further health problems when health workers are affected by stress and lack of time. Antonovsky emphasized the importance of a salutogenic perspective to promote health. Aim: To highlight the health benefits of dogs on patients’ in health care. Method: A literature review based on the analysis of ten scientific articles according to the purpose. Result: The dog as a therapy animal in healthcare shows several health benefits in physical, mental, social and emotional health. The presence of the dog contributed to increased physical activity, energy, Quality of Life and social interaction while pain, stress and mental illness symptoms reduced. Conclusion: There are several health benefits of dogs in health and social care work, which suggests good reasons to further implement them in health care. Clinical importance: The result aims to highlight the potential value of dogs in health and social care work. This to further provide animal-assisted interventions as a complement to traditional health care and thereby achieve optimal health for more patients.

  • 19.
    Al-Edlah, Rami
    et al.
    The Swedish Red Cross University College.
    Mostafa, Chenar Hassan
    The Swedish Red Cross University College.
    Kvinnors psykosociala hälsa efter mastektomi: En litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer affecting women in Sweden and worldwide. Treatment for breast cancer is usually a surgical procedure where parts of the breast or the entire breast are removed, a so-called mastectomy. Breasts are seen as a symbol of femininity, and if removed, the woman's self-image is affected negatively. Previous research has shown that the operation affects a woman's psychosocial health negatively, and beside the woman’s own coping skills, social environment does have a central part in the woman’s psychological health. Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the psychosocial health after a mastectomy in women with breastcancer. Method: This study is a study based on ten qualitative, scientific articles. All articles are analyzed and presented under main- and subcategories. Results: Five major categories and nine sub-categories emerged from the analysis, the main categories are: personal development, work, activities and economics, female identity, mental illhealth and social network. Conclusion: Women's psychosocial health is affected after a mastectomy, but the experience can vary based on their age and how they cope with their feelings. Mastectomized women need individualized care. Clinical significance: Nurses must have a good and individualized care towards these women. This literature study will help nurses to get more knowledge of women with breast cancer experience and psychosocial health after mastectomy.

  • 20.
    Alhall, Birgitta
    et al.
    The Swedish Red Cross University College.
    Buskas, Magnus
    The Swedish Red Cross University College.
    Ventilatorurträningsprotokoll inom intensivvården i Sverige: en totalundersökning2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The consequences of extended mechanical ventilation in the form of increased number of complications and high costs are well documented. The patient needs to wean with an adequate method without delay. Weaning protocols can reduce the risk of ineffective care and medical errors by providing common weaning strategy and terminology. The purpose of this study was to describe the contents of weaning protocols in Swedish intensive care units. The study consisted of a total survey, and all Swedish intensive care units were asked if they had weaning protocols. The protocols were analyzed on the basis of manifest content analysis. Four categories of the weaning process distinguished: readiness to wean criteria, guidelines for reduction in ventilatory support, fatigue criteria and extubation criteria. One fifth (21 %) of intensive care units in Sweden had a weaning protocol. In the 16 protocols 31 readiness to wean criteria, 8 methods for reduction of ventilatory support, 24 fatigue criteria and 9 extubation criteria where found. The most common readiness to wean criteria and fatigue criteria are well in line with what international studies recommends, however some weaning protocols included a large number of these criteria. Despite this no criteria occurs in all weaning protocols. Criteria to predict weaning outcome is almost completely missing in Swedish weaning protocols. The methods for reduction of ventilatory support showed a more united approach in which all lower ventilatory support as a first step. Even in this category some weaning protocols had included a large variety in methods for reduction of ventilatory support. The terminology used in the weaning protocols varies which makes quality evaluation difficult.

  • 21.
    Allansson, Ola
    et al.
    The Swedish Red Cross University College.
    Nylander, John
    The Swedish Red Cross University College.
    De HIV-drabbade och vården: En litteraturöversikt om bemötandet av HIV- drabbade personer2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: HIV is one of the biggest global epidemics. Historically the HIV-infected persons have faced a discriminative and stigmatizing attitude inside the health care-sector. That form of negative reception has been seen as one of the biggest obstacles to decrease the spread of HIV and to create an equal healthcare sector.

    Aim: The aim is to highlight how HIV-infected persons experience the reception from health care professionals in countries with low prevalence of HIV.

    Method: A literature review with nine scientific articles, seven articles were qualitative, one was quantitative and one with mixed method.

    Results: Two main topics arised: The negative reception and The positive reception. The HIV-infected are still experiencing situations where they are treated with a stigmatized and discriminative attitude from the health care-professionals. The result, however, indicates that the reception has improved. The HIV-infected experienced that the positive interactions widely exceeded the negative.

    Conclusion: HIV-stigmatization is still a major issue within the health care sector. The HIV- infected, however, experience the stigmatizing reception in more isolated cases today and the positive reception widely exceeded the negative stigmatizing reception. The HIV-infected experienced health care professionals with high knowledge to give a better reception.

  • 22.
    Alm, Jenny
    et al.
    The Swedish Red Cross University College.
    Furness, Per
    The Swedish Red Cross University College.
    Pupillövervakning: specialistsjuksköterskans användning inom neurokirurgisk intensivvård2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Pupil monitoring is part of the neurological assessment of high relevance to the neurosurgical intensive care patients. It is also described as part of pain and sedation monitoring. Objective: To investigate how specialist nurses in neurosurgical intensive care use pupil monitoring in their work. Method: The study was conducted as a semi-structured interview study. Six nurses working in neurosurgical intensive care were interviewed. The material was analyzed and presented in terms of themes and categories. Results: The two themes that emerged were To follow the course and To evaluate reliability. To follow the course meant that the pupil monitoring was described as part of monitoring and evaluating patient status and to take, defer, and evaluate nursing interventions. Documentation and reporting of pupil monitoring proved to be very important to follow patients' progress. The theme To evaluate the reliability revealed that nurses, with the help of pupil supervision, was described to distinguish actual changes in patient status to error values because of technical problems, but also to verify whether a sense of the nurse were in line with reality. Conclusion: Our results have shown that specialist nurses in neurosurgical intensive care use pupil monitoring not only to monitor patients' status and to evaluate interventions but also to evaluate the technology and reliability of emotional influence.

  • 23.
    Alm, Linda
    et al.
    Red Cross University College of Nursing.
    Björk, Jessica
    Red Cross University College of Nursing.
    Lindra lidandet vid stickrädsla: Litteraturstudie om omvårdnadsmetoder vid stickrädsla2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Approximately 10% of the world population suffers from some kind of needle fear. Vaccinations and blood sampling is common in today's modern health care and patients with needle fear may therefore avoid medical care which in turn could have a negative impact on their health. The nurse can alleviate suffering caused on the individual through proven knowledge of needle fear. Aim: To illustrate different nursing practices that can be used to relieve patients suffering from needle fear. Method: Literature review. Result: The results are reported under four themes. The Environment is shown to play a major role for the needle fear patient. The nurse can create a less clinical setting and hide needles, which have shown to help the patient cope with their fears better. The Time given to patients who feel fear and discomfort with vaccinations, blood tests or similar, have been shown to calm the needle fear. Likewise, the nurse's ability to make the process short, if desired, is appreciated by the patient. Distraction has been proven as a very good method to take care of needle fear patients and good examples are conversations, breathing techniques, word games or puzzles. Being taken seriously is often important to give a needle fear patient a good care experience and has also shown to be crucial as to whether the needle patient at a later date would rely on medical services and seek help or not. Conclusion: There are nursing care methods, which have been scientifically proven, that nurse can use to alleviate the suffering from patients with needle fear. Clinical significance: A major problem within the health profession is a lack of knowledge that needle fear occurs among adults. Therefore, the authors hope that by highlighting the topic in health care, adults should receive the same considerate needle fear care as children have access to today.

  • 24.
    Alshaikh, Zahra
    et al.
    Sophiahemmet Högskola.
    Alkhodari, Mohammed
    Sophiahemmet Högskola.
    Sormunen, Taina
    Sophiahemmet Högskola.
    Hillerås, Pernilla
    Sophiahemmet Högskola / Karolinska Institutet.
    Nurses' knowledge about palliative care in an intensive care unit in Saudi Arabia2015In: Middle East Journal of Nursing, ISSN 1834-8742, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 7-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Most patients die in hospital settings either in intensive care unit (ICU), emergency department (ED) or other departments. In Saudi Arabia, approximately 23,000 persons are diagnosed with cancer every year. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), palliative care is a holistic activity that involves physical, psychosocial and spiritual human needs to enhance quality of life for patients and their families. Palliative care is an essential aspect to be applied for patients with chronic diseases to improve their quality of life. Earlier studies have shown that physicians, nurses and nurse assistants who work in long-term care settings lack the knowledge to enforce palliative care principles due to lack of education. According to the WHO, health care professionals should be educated and trained to apply palliative care.Aim: The aim of this study was to explore nurses' knowledge about palliative care in an intensive care unit in Saudi Arabia. Method: Eight individual qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Manifest content analysis was used to analyze the data. Results: The palliative care concept was not familiar for most ICU nurses but it was applied in their daily work. Most nurses provided physical care at the end of life to keep the body intact. Some nurses highlighted that dying patients did not feel pain to be treated and did not have emotions to be supported.Conclusions: Nurses had insufficient knowledge of palliative care and how to apply it in ICU setting. The provision of additional education in palliative care is recommended in order to improve the knowledge of palliative care among nurses.

  • 25.
    Amir, Catrine
    et al.
    The Swedish Red Cross University College.
    Ringvall, Carolina
    The Swedish Red Cross University College.
    Patient upplevelsen av att leva med tarmstomi: En litteraturöversikt2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: An intestinal stoma could mean great physical and mental changes and restrictions in a patient's life. Colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel diseases are the most common causes of intestinal stoma. Stoma therapists are specially trained nurses, when they are not available, it is ordinary nurses that cater to the care of the patient. Aim: To illuminate the patient's experience of living with intestinal stoma. Method: A general literature review based on eleven qualitative articles. Results: The analysis resulted in four themes. Impact on daily life, change of habits that affect the patient's life. Body image, intestinal stoma changed the patient’s view of their body. Support, the importance of the nurse's role in nursing. Information, provided by the nurse was an important element in the self-care. Conclusion: It is of importance that the nurses in their role adapts the care individually and take into account the patient based on the patient’s individual needs. The nurse can also motivate the patient to participate in self-care and provide support for the patient to the adjustment of the intestinal stoma. By relating to the person-centered care the nurse can take the patient’s whole experience into account and gain a deeper knowledge of understanding the patient’s experience of living with an intestinal stoma. Continued research: As a nurse, it is important to always take note of current research in order to improve the care of patients with intestinal stoma. Further research is needed, since specific research was lacking in the area person-centrered and intestinal stoma care

  • 26.
    Andersson, Anna
    et al.
    The Swedish Red Cross University College.
    Holm, Katarina
    The Swedish Red Cross University College.
    Mamma, mamma, barn: lesbiska kvinnors upplevelser av mödravård samt förlossning2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The last decade has brought great changes for homosexuals in laws and regulations. Among other things, the right to be parent is now legally accepted. Many gay couples have therefore decided to create a family. The purpose of this study was to describe lesbian women´s experiences in connection with prenatal care and childbirth. The compilation resulted in five main categories: Communication, Acknowledgment, Defense, Knowledge and Openness, which was worked up from Imogene King´s theory of caring. The results showed that several women had experiences of positive character, but that there also were many who talked about negative experiences. Heteronormativity was a constantly recurring theme that permeated all categories. Caregivers often assumed that the lesbian women were heterosexual without regard to other possibilities. This study shows that health professionals should be aware of their own way to communicate and to ensure the uniqueness of each individual. Positive experiences emerged when the midwife is clearly confirmed the lesbian women as prospective parents. Good care requires that health professionals are aware of heteronormativity, and that creates obstacles to the care of lesbian women.

  • 27.
    Andersson, Ann-Christine
    et al.
    Division of Quality Technology and Management, Linköping University, Linköping.
    Idvall, Ewa
    Faculty of Health and Society, Malmö University, Malmö.
    Perseius, Kent-Inge
    Nyckeln Competence Centre for Pedagogic in Health Care, Kalmar County Council, Kalmar.
    Elg, Mattias
    Division of Quality Technology and Management, Linköping University, Linköping.
    Evaluating a Breakthrough Series Collaborative in a Swedish Health Care Context2014In: Journal of Nursing Care Quality, ISSN 1057-3631, E-ISSN 1550-5065, Vol. 29, no 2, p. E1-E10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluated the use of the Breakthrough Series Collaborative methodology in a Swedish county council improvement program, comparing measurements at the beginning and after 6 months. A questionnaire was used, and improvement processes and outcomes were analyzed. The results showed an overall large engagement in improvements, although the methodology and facilitators were seen as only moderately supportive.

  • 28.
    Andersson, Danielle
    et al.
    The Swedish Red Cross University College.
    Blom, Julia
    The Swedish Red Cross University College.
    Evidensbaserade trycksårsförebyggande insatser för äldre patienter: En kvantitativ litteraturstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Pressure ulcers are a major problem in health care. They easily occur among elderly patients, and cause suffering for them. One task of being a nurse is to identify the patients' needs of prevention. Many pressure ulcer preventions exist, such as risk assessment, repositioning and support surfaces. Despite this, there is uncertainty about how these preventive measures should be used. This work focuses on describing evidence-based pressure ulcer prevention for the elderly to facilitate nurses' choices regarding the application of their resources, as well as reduce the incidence of pressure ulcers among elderly patients.

    Aim: To describe evidence-based pressure ulcer prevention in elderly patients.

    Method: A literature review containing ten quantitative articles.

    Results: Pressure ulcer incidence can be reduced by use of assessment instruments in combination with the nurse's clinical judgment. Viscoelastic mattress, air alternating mattress and cover have been shown to be effective as pressure ulcer prevention. Repositioning every three hours during the night reduces the incidence of pressure ulcers, and so does repositioning every four hours in combination with a pressure-relieving viscoelastic mattress. Additionally, pressure ulcers on heels can be avoided if a wedge-shaped viscoelastic cushion or a heel guard is used. Pressure relieving wheelchair cushions have been shown to reduce the incidence of pressure ulcers.

    Conclusion: Risk assessment instruments should be combined with the nurse's clinical assessment, and based on the results obtained pressure ulcer prevention efforts can be selected, such as air alternating or viscoelastic mattress, or pressure relieving wheelchair cushion. Repositioning have shown reduced pressure ulcer incidence, but there is uncertainty about the interval that should be used, and therefore more research is needed in this area. There is clear evidence that a wedge-shaped pillow or a heel guard provides reduced pressure ulcer incidence.

  • 29.
    Andersson, Frida
    et al.
    The Swedish Red Cross University College.
    Andersson, Karin
    The Swedish Red Cross University College.
    Föräldramedverkan vid barns postoperativa smärta: en litteraturstudie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The postoperative pain is affected by several components: the location and extent of the surgery, the child’s age and expectations. In family-centred care parents have an important part. This care is based on a close cooperation, where the parents are used as a bridge between the child and the caregivers. By their presence parents can give comfort, support and help the child to relieve the pain. Parental involvement can also include helping the child with daily activities and use non-pharmacological pain relieving methods.

    Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate which factors affect parental involvement in children's postoperative pain during hospitalization.

    Method: The study is a literature review of five quantitative and four qualitative articles. Analysed with reference to similarities and differences in the result.

    Results: The analysis revealed two different categories: parental components and nursing interventions. The results show that feelings affect parental participation in the care of the child. Nursing intervention influences parent’s emotions, and therefore the outcome of parental participation.

    Conclusion: Results indicate a number of factors that have a direct or indirect impact on parental involvement. Overall, parental involvement is based on a good relationship between the parents and the nurse.

    Clinical Significance: Through increased knowledge of the factors that influence parental involvement, caregivers can affect the outcome of the parental participation. A well functioning parental involvement can benefit the care of children with postoperative pain.

  • 30.
    Andersson, Gabrielle
    et al.
    Red Cross University College of Nursing.
    Östlund, Cecilia
    Red Cross University College of Nursing.
    Kvinnors upplevelser av hjärtinfarkt2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Cardiovascular research was originally based on men and applied on women, despite differences in disease course and effect on life between women and men. The study’s aim was to describe women’s experience of myocardial infarction from a transition perspective. The method was a descriptive literature study and ten qualitative articles were included. Four titles with associated categories were found. The first title Health included the categories Diffuse physical symptoms before the acute phase, Illness experience in the acute phase and Physical deterioration. The second title Life change included the categories Difficulties with understanding what happened, Concern regarding the adaptation to a new life, Life style changes and A new meaning with life. The third title Relations included the categories Not wanting to be a burden, Need for support and A changed role in the family. The fourth title Environment included Support from the rehabilitation and Back to work. The authors concluded that when women experience a myocardial infarction, they experience a transition in several areas such as identity, relations, physical capacity and behavioral patterns as their health status change.

  • 31. Andersson, H.
    et al.
    Lindholm, Christina
    Red Cross University College of Nursing. Karolinska University Hospital / Karolinska Institutet.
    Fossum, B.
    Karolinska Institutet / Sophiahemmet University College.
    MRSA - global threat and personal disaster: Patients' experiences2011In: International Nursing Review, ISSN 0020-8132, E-ISSN 1466-7657, Vol. 58, no 1, p. 47-53Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Andersson, Kenneth
    et al.
    The Swedish Red Cross University College.
    Jaigirdar, Lipi
    The Swedish Red Cross University College.
    Coping av emotionell stress efter kritisk incident:: Intervjustudie av intensivvårdssjuksköterskors upplevelser2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The intensive care unit is a high technology environment were critical ill is treated. Intensive care nurses comes in contact of situation where they may encounter stress. It can be situation, relatives or own identifications that gives emotional stress. Stress that is not cooped with can lead to sickness, persistent emotional effects and lead to burnout.

    Aim: To describe intensive care nurses experiences of emotional stress and coping strategies after a critical incident.

    Method: Interview study with eight informants was done. A qualitative content analysis was performed of the transcribed interviews.

    Results: Relatives reaction is a large part of the emotional stress that was experienced, even flaws in care and routines left memories after critical incidents. Peer to peer talks was the support that had best coping strategies against emotional stress. Relaxation, distraction and social context were also support against the emotional distress. Space, time and place, for peer to peer conversation is a desire among informants.

    Conclusion: To have and to take the time to perform peer to peer talks is a relief against emotional stress. Management should make it a possibility to conclude these talks as it is the preferred coping strategy. Some indication of flaws in information to management during unsocial hours and a need for routines of information need to be looked over and clarified.

    Further research: Coping of emotional stress gives resilience with the staff to handle difficult situation and to move forward without any lasting effect of the stress. An interest could be in the future to find out how other professionals reasoning about coping of emotional stress in cooperation with intensive care nurses.

  • 33.
    Andersson, Kristina
    The Swedish Red Cross University College.
    Sjuksköterskors upplevda hinder och barriärer för att utföra trycksårsprevention2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The prevalence of pressure ulcers is likely to increase significantly with an increasing proportion of older people. A pressure ulcer is causing suffering for patient, prolonged hospitalization and high cost of healthcare. Most pressure ulcers are preventable. The nurse has an important role with regard to preventive measures when the risk of pressure ulcer is present. Clear guidelines and action plans should be available in all departments. Action plans along with training and awareness of nurses contributes to fewer pressure ulcers occur.

    Purpose: To explore nurses perceived obstacles or barriers in terms of putting in pressure ulcer prevention.

    Method: The essay is a literature review based on seven quantitative studies.

    Results: The main obstacle perceived by the nurses to perform pressure ulcer prevention measures were lack of knowledge. The nurses reported that they lacked access to relevant literature and training in the subject. Other challenges that emerged were the lack of equipment, personnel and time. Organizational deficiencies and lack of patient involvement were additional barriers that were identified.

    Conclusion: Most of the studies showed that the nurses felt that they lacked adequate knowledge. Hospitals should review its guidelines regarding pressure ulcer prevention and train more nurses in the field. More time needs to be reserved for the preventive work. This is to reduce care suffering for patients, reduce the number of prolonged hospitalizations and healthcare costs. It is cheaper to prevent a pressure ulcer than to treat.

    Clinical significance: In order to provide good care, with the right knowledge, a need for more and deeper knowledge of the obstacles and barriers nurses faces regarding pressure ulcer prevention. More recent studies performed with the same instruments and with increased quality would result in greater evidence. The use of evidence-based clinical guidelines can provide improvements for patients, staff and organization.

  • 34.
    Andersson, Lena
    et al.
    Centre for Clinical Research, Sörmland, Uppsala University.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    School of Health, Care and Welfare, Mälardalen University.
    Nordgren, Lena
    School of Health, Care and Welfare, Mälardalen University.
    Differences between heart failure clinics and primary health care2013In: British Journal of Community Nursing, ISSN 1462-4753, E-ISSN 2052-2215, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 288-292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a paucity of knowledge concerning how people with heart failure experience differences between specialised heart failure clinics and primary healthcare in Sweden. This study aimed to describe differences regarding information and follow- up in heart failure clinics and primary healthcare. The study was conducted in Sweden in 2011. Four people (three men, one woman: aged 60 to 84) with heart failure (NYHA II) were interviewed. The interviews were analysed with qualitative content analysis. The findings revealed after referral from the heart failure clinic to primary healthcare, follow-ups were omitted. Still, the patients needed care, support and information. The findings are illuminated in four themes. The patients' varying and individual needs can be difficult to recognise and manage unless they are followed-up from either HFC or PHC on a regular basis.

  • 35.
    Andersson, Linda
    et al.
    The Swedish Red Cross University College.
    Baker, Gabrielle
    The Swedish Red Cross University College.
    Det tysta lidandet: Stigmat att leva med urininkontinens2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Urinary incontinence is a public health problem with an increasing prevelence as the population ages. Urinary incontinence occurs at any age, but prevalence is highest in older women. Symptoms affect woman's health negatively and cause physical and psychosocial suffering.

    Objective: To examine women's experience living with urinary incontinence and its implications on daily life.

    Method: A literary of 10 original studies using qualitative method.

    Results: Three identified themes: Knowledge gaps: Perceptions of symptoms and Normalization of symptoms, Emotional aspects: Self perceptions and emotions and Fears, Coping with everyday life: Coping and lifestyle adaption and Sexual and intimate relations. Results show women had insufficient knowledge about urinary incontinence and experienced it inappropriate to discuss. Women developed strategies to adapt and cope with everyday life.

    Conclusions: Urinary incontinence causes stigma that creates limitations in everyday life and great mental strain from which many women suffer in silence. Few women seek care as the subject is perceived as shameful and taboo. Instead women adopt coping strategies to manage the situation. A knowledge gap surrounding etiology, symptoms and treatment can be discerned within the patient group who pledge for greater focus and clarity from health care personnel.

    Clinical importance: Nurses have an important role in provision of treatment and need to be better at finding patients at an early stage and provide accurate information about urinary incontinence. The study intends to give greater understanding of psychosocial effects of living with urinary incontinence.

  • 36.
    Andersson Sand, Karin
    et al.
    The Swedish Red Cross University College.
    Söderling Brandin, Sofia
    The Swedish Red Cross University College.
    "Jag ska bli sjuksyster jag": En litteraturstudie om olika motiv och personlighetsdrag bakom yrkesvalet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to highlight the different personality traits and the motives of wanting to become a nurse with a focus on co-dependency. Due to that people with a problematic childhood tend to choose the nursing profession in which the need to care for others can be satisfied. The used method is a literature review consisting of 10 qualitative studies from the years 2008 to 2016. The results were identified by four themes: The desire to help others, the influence from others, various personality traits, practical reasons and previous experience. Conclusions; the study answered the aim of why one chooses to become a nurse and what can influence the choice. Whether the different personality traits influenced the choice was answered to some limitation. The authors believe that the study allows an insight into the factors that influence an individual's motives for choosing the profession, this may provide healthcare professionals and patients a better condition to meet in a good care relationship. The findings are weighted with the concepts caring and co-dependency, which has permeated the work. Suggestions for future research is to investigate further about the personality traits of those who choose to become a nurse and if the profession is suitable for all personalities.

  • 37.
    Andersson, Tetyana
    The Swedish Red Cross University College.
    Patienters andliga behov2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The recent studies shows that patients had spiritual needs and that the majority of them appreciate to discuss them with nurses. Nurses realize the importance of spirituality in patient care and show understanding in practical knowledge, however remain patients’ spiritual needs unsatisfied. Aim: The aim of this study was to illuminate patients’ spiritual needs from their own perspective. Method: This is a literature overview based on ten research articles published between 1997 and 2011. Findings: Five themes: Love to one’s family, Closeness to the divine, Acceptance of one’s destiny, Human dignity and Pursuit for the truth were identified. Conclusion: Patients’ spiritual needs are to affirm the life, conflicting inspiration, insight in the meaning of suffering, to discover the beauty in the ugliness and new understanding about oneself.

  • 38.
    Andréasson, Love
    et al.
    The Swedish Red Cross University College.
    Lindqvist, Conny
    The Swedish Red Cross University College.
    ARBETSVÄXLING SOM KOMPETENSHÖJANDE ÅTGÄRD FÖR INTENSIVVÅRDSSJUKSKÖTERSKOR2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Stockholm area has a shortage of intensive care nurses. A main reason for this is the high staff turnover where many intensive care nurses leave their employment within two years. This is related by high workload, unsatisfactory pay and insufficient opportunity to raise the level of competence. Employers that promote actions which could raise the level of competence would get more intensive care nurses to stay within the intensive care unit even though the workload would be high.

    Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate what intensive care nurses view regarding job rotation as an intervention to raise the level of competence.

    Method: Two focus groups interviews were used to collect the data. The data was analysed by a qualitative manifest content analysis.

    Result: The result shows that the participants considered that job rotation works as an intervention to raise the level of competence. During the analysis five themes were found: the impact of job rotations on the competence, the impact of job rotations on the individual, the mutual impact of job rotations between departments, job rotation as a retention measure and reasons to remain in the intensive care.

    Discussion: This study has shown that intensive care nurses think that job rotation is an intervention to raise the level of competence in intensive care nurses. It is although unclear whether job rotation will keep intensive care nurses within the intensive care.

    Clinical significance: The care administration has been given a hint that job rotation increases the level of competence for the employers in intensive care.

  • 39. Antonsson, Ann-Christin
    et al.
    Sandström, Birgitta
    Reflektion: kärnan i omvårdnadshandledning2000In: Vård i Norden, ISSN 0107-4083, E-ISSN 1890-4238, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 38-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The nursingprofession is demanding and variable; nurses must have knowledge and proficiency practically, technically and be able to teamwork in the relation with all kinds of patients. At the same time they should perform nursing according to science and tried practice. One way to develop the engagement in patients and bring new knowledge into nursing is to participate in clinical supervision. The aim of the present study was to find out how nurses in somatic care describes what they learn and how knowledge integrates and develops in clinical supervision. Eight nurses were interviewed and their responses were taped, written down word for word and analysed according to a qualitative approach. The results shows that practically all knowledge were integrated by reflection. With the help of reflection the nurses could be taught by each others experiences, develop nursing and become skilful nurses.

  • 40. Arevald, C
    et al.
    Johnsson, A
    Carlsson, C
    Larsen, Joacim
    Ohlson, E
    Olsson, M
    Förbättrat omhändertagande av kvinnor med bröstcancer som genomgår autolog stamcellstransplantation.1998Report (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Arman, Maria
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute.
    Backman, Marie
    Red Cross University College of Nursing.
    A longitudinal study on women's experiences of life with breast cancer in anthroposophical (complementary) and conventional care2007In: European Journal of Cancer Care, ISSN 0961-5423, E-ISSN 1365-2354, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 444-450Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Arman, Maria
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute.
    Backman, Marie
    Red Cross University College of Nursing.
    Carlsson, Marianne
    Uppsala University.
    Hamrin, Elisabeth
    Linköping University.
    Women's perceptions and beliefs about the genesis of their breast cancer2006In: Cancer Nursing, ISSN 0162-220X, E-ISSN 1538-9804, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 142-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A person's belief is seen as a set of assumptions, depending on perceptions, and formed with the influence of experiences and social culture. With the aim of understanding the beliefs about the genesis of their illness, 118 (59 + 59) women with different stages of breast cancer were interviewed. Half of the sample had chosen complementary care in an anthroposophical hospital, and the other half was a matched group. Qualitative content analysis was used. Three themes emerged: (1) belief in a link to life lived (71%), (2) heredity as the sole genesis (4%), and (3) rejection of the question (25%). Under beliefs in a link to life lived, external aspects to the patient's own life (eg, diet and lifestyle) were cited, as well as inner aspects such as psychosocial problems and stress. The findings show that women are well informed about medical facts, although their beliefs reveal a holistic approach. The women's beliefs, where inner psychosocial factors are uppermost, point to a reverse of the causal ranking of medical advisors. The difference between the groups was that the matching sample was more likely to reject the influence of possible causes from life lived. In a caring perspective, women's perceptions of the genesis of their illness are in some cases turned to creative health activities that may increase well-being.

  • 43.
    Arnfridsson, Moa
    et al.
    Red Cross University College of Nursing.
    Lyktberg, Elvira
    Red Cross University College of Nursing.
    Förlust av kroppsdel: Varför hände det här mig?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Loss of body part may cause grief and loss of the actual body part as well as the function. The experience of the loss of body part may vary between different surgeries or medical conditions.Aim: To describe the experience after loss of body part through a life-world perspective.Method: A literature-study based on 10 phenomenological articles about mastectomy, prostatectomy and amputation. The life-world theory of Todres, Galvin and Dahlberg has been used through the work, with the concepts experienced time, experienced space, social world, lived body and lived experience.Findings: Sub-categories of the theoretical framework are presented in the result. In the experienced time the sub-categories future, at present time and time as a process was identified. The experienced space was identified with the sub-categories limitations in daily life, independence and changes. Sub-categories identified in the social world are social support, relating to others and identity. Lived body consists of symptoms, changed body, owner of the body and feelings of embodiment. In the lived experience the sub-categories acceptance, decision-making and feelings was identified. Conclusion: The experience of loss of body part is a unique process. The experiences through a life-world perspective is colored by grief and happiness, suffering and belief in the future, but also support and identity in relation to social interaction, as well as relating to the changed body and life. A person who has lost a body part is in need of support and help to enhance empowerment and self-esteem.Relevance to clinical practice: By gaining knowledge about the life-world of a person who has lost a body part, the nurse can improve practice and ease suffering. The nurse can also contribute with information about support groups and help for the changed daily life.

  • 44.
    Arpö, Sandra
    et al.
    The Swedish Red Cross University College.
    Donath Sandgren, Alexandra
    The Swedish Red Cross University College.
    Människans föränderliga existens: Essensen av begreppet sårbarhet. En begreppsanalys2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]
    • Background. The background overview of this research presented vulnerability as a contextual phenomenon in the encounter between nurse and patient. The essence of the concept of vulnerability appeared unclear, which indicates that there is a lack of knowledge about the concept of vulnerability.
    • Aim. The aim of the study was to describe the essence of the concept of vulnerability in a nursing social context, meaning the encounter between humans being.
    • Methods. The methods have been based on the model of conceptual analysis of Segesten (2011) and involved an inductive and a deductive qualitative approach.
    • Findings. The concept analysis resulted in the following findings: susceptibility to damage – heartache, pain of the soul, defenselessness; courage to be vulnerable – human dignity, perceptiveness; uncertain threats to life – betrayal of the nursing core, annihilated identity; the profound human existence – desire for immutability, a direction towards a definite change.
    • Conclusion. The essence of the meaning of vulnerability derives from man’s ever-changing existence. The changing existence gets its significance from threat to life, destroyed identity and betrayal of the nursing core, which is conceptualized by the vulnerability that arises in nursing care encounters, expressed in words like skinless, naked and defenseless.
    • Clinical significance. The study has contributed to clarifying the meaning of the concept of vulnerability within nursing professions by unveiling the word's various dimensions within different nursing contexts. The clinical implications for the nursing care, but also the general public education, is that the word’s meanings can develop the language from the perspective of vulnerability.
  • 45.
    Arthana, Lina
    et al.
    The Swedish Red Cross University College.
    Hedlöf, Jenny
    The Swedish Red Cross University College.
    Att leva med endometrios: En litteraturstudie om kvinnors upplevelse2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Endometriosis is a common gynecological disease which in many cases can cause a great deal of suffering. Despite this fact many women have to wait a long time to get a proper diagnosis, the right medical care and treatment. The disease has a complex clinical picture that differs and which in many different ways have an impact on women’s lives.

    Aim: The aim was to describe women’s experiences living with endometriosis by looking at how women suffer due to the disease, from the points of disease-suffering, care-suffering and life-suffering.

    Method: General literature review where ten scientific articles were analysed based on the theory on suffering by Katie Eriksson as a criterion of the categories, disease-suffering, caresuffering and life-suffering.

    Result: Endometriosis impacted women’s lives in many different aspects. Women often suffered from intense pain and other symptoms and signs, which were often dismissed by caregivers. The disease also impacted women’s relationships as well as their social life in the sense that they often were treated with distrust from immediate surroundings.

    Conclusion: Caregivers need to have a deeper knowledge and understanding of endometriosis and its clinical picture to prevent women’s symptoms from being trivialized and neglected. The caregivers’ attitudes in the encounter with women have to be better and generate an earlier diagnosis and treatment. Emotional support from both caregivers and their immediate surroundings is important to substantiate women and their experiences of the disease.

    Clinical importance: It is of clinical significance that caregivers have an understanding for women’s experience of living with endometriosis. This in order for the care to be given from a broader perspective looking at the women’s life situation.

  • 46.
    Aschberg, Jill
    et al.
    Red Cross University College of Nursing.
    Sjöblom, Elin
    Red Cross University College of Nursing.
    Sjuksköterskestudenters attityder till personer med HIV: en enkätundersökning2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: HIV/AIDS är idag en sjukdom som varit känd för oss i snart tre decennier. Synen på människor som har HIV har förvisso ändrats. Trots förändringar upplever personer med HIV fortfarande negativa attityder, diskriminering och socialt utanförskap både ute i samhället och inom sjukvården. Vid en närmare granskning av litteraturen visar det sig att attityder och rädslor finns kvar mot personer med HIV även hos sjukvårdspersonal. Syfte: Att undersöka sjuksköterskestudenters attityder till personer med HIV. Med frågeställningarna: Hur ser sjuksköterskestudenternas avståndstagande attityder till personer med HIV ut? Hur ser sjuksköterskestudenternas empatiska attityder till personer med HIV ut? Och finns det en önskan att kunna avstå från att vårda personer med HIV. Metod: Studien är deskriptiv kvantitativ med ett frågeformulär baserat på Aids Attitude Scale AAS, ett instrument som mäter avståndstagande och empatiska attityder till personer med HIV. Respondenterna grupperades utifrån ålder, vårderfarenhet och erfarenhet av att vårda patienter med HIV och jämfördes med varandra. Kvalitativa inslag finns i mätinstrumentet i form av möjligheter för respondenten att lämna kommentarer till det sista påståendet om jag gavs valmöjlighet skulle jag avstå från att vårda patienter med HIV. Resultat: Resultatet visar att respondenterna överlag har positiva attityder till personer med HIV. Resultatet visar att respondenterna i de äldre åldersgrupperna, 26- 30 år och 31- 45 år och de som hade tidigare vårderfarenhet, samt de som hade tidigare erfarenhet av vård av personer med HIV uppvisade mindre avståndstagande attityder men också mindre empatiska attityder. Andelen respondenter som ställde sig bakom påståendet om jag gavs valmöjlighet skulle jag avstå från att vårda patienter med HIV, var högre i grupperna där åldern var lägre, gruppen 20- 25 år och hos de som inte hade vårderfarenhet eller erfarenhet av att vårda patienter med HIV. Kunskap och utbildning kan vara av betydelse för att attityderna mot personer med HIV ska kunna ändras. Konklusion: Erfarenhet av att vårda sjuka människor i allmänhet och att vårda sjuka människor med HIV i synnerhet kan leda till lägre avståndstagande attityder mot personer med HIV.

  • 47.
    Asklöf, Ludvig
    et al.
    The Swedish Red Cross University College.
    Larsson, Katrin
    The Swedish Red Cross University College.
    Den förhärskande heteronormativiteten: - Sjuksköterskor på en akutmottagning i möten med HBTQ- personer2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The literature review shows that society is permeated by heteronormativity. Knowledge gaps in education programs in health care and in clinical practice concerning encounters with LGBTQ people. A knowledge gap can be identified on how encounters are created between nurses and LGBTQ people in an emergency department. Aim: The aim of this study was to describe how registered nurses in a hospital emergency department encounter LGBTQ- people. Method: Descriptive empirical study with qualitative approach, interactive conversation interviews with six registered nurses was conducted and analyzed with modified content analysis, editing analysis style. Results: From the analysis emerged four categories: emerging gender experience, a demanding but open work environment, the ambivalent pair and good and dignified care. Conclusion: The findings from interactive conversation interviews with six registered nurses in an emergency department were explained with concepts of queer theory. Despite the emerging gender experience is hampered by the dominant heteronormativity and lack of knowledge concerning sex, gender and sexuality contributes to the ambiguity of the nurses in the emergency department, even under present conditions, encounters are created with LGBTQ people, in which they are given a good and dignified care.

  • 48.
    Asp, Camilla
    et al.
    The Swedish Red Cross University College.
    Torell, Fredrika
    The Swedish Red Cross University College.
    När en förälder är svårt sjuk: - En litteraturstudie om hur barn hanterar sin situation och sjuksköterskans stöd till dem2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In 2010 the Health care law introduced a new statute that resulted in new guidelines for several of Sweden’s county councils regarding the treatment of children as dependants. Every year, 3361 children lose a parent due to severe illness, and this may result in a poorer physical and mental health of the child. An increased awareness by health care professionals would allow detection and support to these vulnerable children. Purpose: To describe how children cope with their situation when a parent is seriously ill and how the nurse can support the child. Method: A literature review based on 13 studies with a qualitative approach. Results: Based on the purpose, all together seven subthemes were presented: How children cope with their situation - taking on an adult role, distraction, feel in control through information and highlighting the positive; How the nurse can support the child - information, involve the children and emotional support and understanding. Conclusion: It should be important that the nurse has knowledge of how children handle the situation when they have a seriously ill parent, and what the consequences might be from the lack of support. This knowledge among nurses can contribute to better detection and support for these children. Nurses can support through information and participation, and thus minimize risk of future health problems among children. Clinical implications: Almost all healthcare professionals might encounter children of severely ill parents. The result from the study could also be applied in other areas, such as when a sibling or grandparent is severely ill.

  • 49.
    Aspén, Gustav
    et al.
    The Swedish Red Cross University College.
    Grahn, Karin
    The Swedish Red Cross University College.
    Kvinnors upplevelser av tidigt missfall: En allmän litteraturstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Missfall är en av de vanligaste graviditetskomplikationerna, som kan medföra psykiska och emotionella påfrestningar, så som djup sorg och depression. Tidigare forskning har visat att sjuksköterskan har en viktig del i vårdandet, där attityder och bemötande har en direkt påverkan på kvinnas upplevelse. Syfte: Studiens syfte var att belysa kvinnans upplevelser av tidigt missfall. Metod: Syftet besvarades genom en allmän litteraturstudie av tio vetenskapliga artiklar med en kvalitativ design. Resultat: Vid tidpunkten för missfallet upplevde kvinnorna en mängd känslor, vilket en del kvinnor utryckte som psykisk kris. En del kvinnor identifierade missfallet som förlusten av ett barn men uttryckte att vårdpersonalen endast såg det ur ett medicinskt perspektiv. Majoriteten av kvinnorna upplevde brister i vårdpersonalens attityder och bemötande, vilket påverkade vårdupplevelsen och resulterade i känslor av att vara övergiven och ensam. Även upplevelsen av bristande information var framträdande. Slutsats: Denna litteraturstudie påvisade att missfall hade en stor påverkan på den psykiska och emotionella hälsan. Vidare hade vården en signifikant betydelse för kvinnans upplevelse där faktorer som attityder, bemötande samt information var framträdande. Sjuksköterskan bör vara medveten om de psykiska och emotionella påfrestningarna missfall skapar, visa tillgänglighet och ge adekvat information samt besvara kvinnornas frågor.  Klinisk betydelse: Denna litteraturstudie kan bidra med kunskap om kvinnors upplevelse av vården i samband med tidigt missfall, således skapa en medvetenhet kring hur attityd, bemötande samt information påverkar kvinnans upplevelse av vården.

  • 50. Assadzadeh, Kamran
    Bibehållen position av endotrakealtub i munhålan: en kvantitativ deskriptiv tvärsnittsstudie2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Intensive care units have different routines whether the endotracheal tube position should be shifted or maintained in the same corner of the mouth. Repositioning of the tube can lead to serious complications. The routine at CIVA has been to change the endotracheal tube position in all intubated patients once per day. None of the routines have been evaluated. The objective of this study is to examine the oral health of intubated patients with maintained tube position. Method: The study is a quantitative descriptive cross-sectional study. A protocol was designed to examine the proportion of patients receiving pressure sores in the mouth. Results: Of a total of 85 orally intubated patients, 10 developed redness and 7 wounds while 68 had intact mucosa. The majority of the newly discovered sores occurred after 3-4 days of intubation. Conclusion: Only a few patients developed pressure sores. The routine to maintain the endotracheal tube in the same position is suitable for the patient category at CIVA since the average length of stay for intubated is 3.2 days and the majority were extubated during the first 3 days . Clinical significance: This study is the basis for CIVA's changed routine to maintain the endotracheal tube position in the same corner of the mouth and could eventually help to reduce the costs for society by reducing the incidence of VAP and thus patient care period.

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