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  • 1.
    Aceijas, Carmen
    et al.
    Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER), Brussels, Belgium; School of Health Sciences, University of Salford, Salford, Greater Manchester, UK..
    Brall, Caroline
    Department of International Health, School CAPHRI, Maastricht University, The Netherlands.
    Schröder-Bäck, Peter
    Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER), Brussels, Belgium.
    Otok, Robert
    Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER), Brussels, Belgium.
    Maeckelberghe, Els
    Institute for Medical Education, University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Stjernberg, Louise
    Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER), Brussels, Belgium; School of Health Science, Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Strech, Daniel
    School of Health Science, Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Tulchinsky, Theodore H
    Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER), Brussels, Belgium; Braun School of Public Health, Hebrew University-Hadassah, Ein Karem, Jerusalem, Israel.
    Teaching Ethics in Schools of Public Health in the European Region: Findings from a Screening Survey2012In: Public Health Reviews, ISSN 0301-0422, E-ISSN 2107-6952, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A survey targeting ASPHER members was launched in 2010/11, being a first initiative in improving ethics education in European Schools of Public Health. An 8-items questionnaire collected information on teaching of ethics in public health. A 52% response rate (43/82) revealed that almost all of the schools (95% out of 40 respondents with valid data) included the teaching of ethics in at least one of its programmes. They also expressed the need of support, (e.g.: a model curriculum (n=25), case studies (n=24)), which indicates further work to be met by the ASPHER Working Group on Ethics and Values in Public Health.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Ann-Christine
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Kvalitetsteknik.
    Elg, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Kvalitetsteknik.
    Idvall, Ewa
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för Hälsa och samhälle.
    Perseius, Kent-Inge
    Landstinget i Kalmar län.
    Five Types of Practice-Based Improvement Ideas in Health Care Services: An Empirically Defined Typology2011In: Quality Management in Health Care, ISSN 1063-8628, E-ISSN 1550-5154, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 122-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to empirically identify and present different kinds of practice-based improvement ideas developed in health care services. The focus is on individual placement needs, problems/issues, and the ability to organize work on the development, implementation, and institutionalization of ideas for the health care sector. This study is based on a Swedish county council improvement program. Health care departments and primary health care centers in the Kalmar County Council were invited to apply for money to accomplish improvement projects. A qualitative content analysis was done of 183 proposed applications from various health care departments and primary health care centers. The following 5 types of improvement projects were identified: organizational process, evidence and quality, competence development, process technology, and proactive patient work. This illustrates the range of strategies that encourage letting individual units define their own improvement needs. These projects point to the various problems and experiences health care professionals encounter in their day-to-day work. To generalize beyond this improvement program and to validate the typology, we applied it to all articles found when searching for quality improvement projects in the journal Quality Management in Health Care during the last 2 years and found that all of them could be fitted into at least 1 of those 5 categories. This article provides valuable insights into the current state of improvemen work in Swedish health care, and will serve as a foundation for further investigations in this quality improvement program.

  • 3.
    Arwidson, Charlotta
    et al.
    Svenska Röda Korset.
    Pernold, Maria
    Svenska Röda Korset.
    Hallstedt, Lisa
    Svenska Röda Korset.
    Dolietis, Sandra
    Svenska Röda Korset.
    Ekbom, Inger
    Stockholms Stadsmission.
    Secher, Åsa
    Ahlenius, Andrea
    Röster från skuggsamhället: att leva som paperslös i Sverige2015Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 4.
    Cadstedt, Jenny
    Department of Human Geography, Stockholm University.
    Influence and invisibility: tenants in housing provision in Mwanza City, Tanzania2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A high proportion of urban residents in Tanzanian cities are tenants who rent rooms in privately owned houses in unplanned settlements. However, in housing policy and in urban planning rental tenure gets very little attention. This study focuses on the reasons for and consequences of this discrepancy between policy and practice.

    Perspectives and actions of different actors involved in the housing provision process in Mwanza City, Tanzania, have been central to the research. The examined actors are residents in various housing tenure forms as well as government officials and representatives at different levels, from the neighbourhood level to UN-Habitat. The main methods have been interviews and discussions with actors as well as studies of policy documents, laws and plans.

    Among government actors, private rental tenure is largely seen as an issue between landlords and tenants. Tanzanian housing policy focuses more on land for housing than on shelter. This means that house-owners who control land have a more important role in urban planning and policies than tenants have. In Tanzania in general and in Mwanza in particular, housing policy focuses on residents’ involvement in upgrading unplanned areas by organising in Community Based Organisations. This means that owners who live for a longer period in an area benefit more from settlement improvements than tenants. Tenants are relatively mobile and do not take for granted that they will stay in the same house for long. This raises the question of tenants’ possibilities to influence as well as their rights as citizens as compared to that of owners. The question of citizens’ rights for dwellers in informal settlements has received increased attention during the last years in international housing policy discussions. There is an evident need to intensify and diversify this discussion.

  • 5.
    Cadstedt, Jenny
    Department of Human Geography, Stockholm University.
    Private rental housing in Tanzania: a private matter?2010In: Habitat International, ISSN 0197-3975, E-ISSN 1873-5428, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 46-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Secure tenure, the citizenship rights of slum dwellers, and community participation are key words in the international discourse on housing policy. This paper reports the results from a study of private rental housing and tenants in unplanned settlements in Mwanza City, Tanzania. It examines the tenants' position in Tanzanian housing policy discourse, considers government housing policy and private rental tenure practices, and explores how the discussion about secure tenure in urban areas is focused on the formalisation of land. In 2005, rental legislation was changed in Tanzania because it was thought to be overly protective of tenants. Since then, tenants in rental housing have been ignored in the national policy discourse, despite the quantitative importance of rental housing in metropolitan Tanzania. The government has concluded that home ownership is the norm in Tanzania, and it regards private rental tenure as a private matter. It does not monitor conditions in the private rental market. In this paper, I suggest that the urban housing situation in Tanzania will not improve until the government acknowledges private rental tenure, views the tenants as urban citizens, and then attends to their needs and interests. One way to start this process is to educate landlords and tenants about their rights and obligations under housing contracts. This would help to reduce the number of conflicts in rental housing and bring about a more secure tenure situation for many residents.

  • 6.
    Cadstedt, Jenny
    Nordic Africa Institute, Sweden and the Department of Human Geography, Stockholm University.
    Tenants' and owners' participation in rotating savings groups and help groups: A study of housing tenure forms and social inclusion in Mwanza city, Tanzania2012In: IDPR. International Development Planning Review, ISSN 1474-6743, E-ISSN 1478-3401, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 19-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    International policy emphasises the importance of slum dwellers' rights of access to cities and their social inclusion. Legalisation of land holdings in informal settlements is one way of enacting this policy. However, this measure favours house owners over the large proportion of tenants renting rooms in private houses in informal settlements in many cities in the global South. Rental housing is neglected by many governments. What role does the form of house tenure play in other processes of social inclusion in informal settlements? This article examines one of many forms of social inclusion: participation of tenants and owners in rotating savings groups and help groups in two areas in Mwanza city, Tanzania. The results indicate that both tenants and owners participate in groups, which are based not only on the geographical area of residence but on work, ethnicity and religion. The study also indicates that not all groups accept tenants as members, because of their high mobility.

  • 7.
    Cadstedt, Jenny
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Tenants in Tanzania, invisible dwellers?2005In: Global tenant : quarterly magazine for the IUT - International Union of Tenants, no August, p. 4-5Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8.
    Christidis, Maria
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Health Sciences. Stockholm University.
    Vocational knowing in subject integrated teaching: A case study in a Swedish upper secondary health and social care program2019In: Learning, Culture and Social Interaction, ISSN 2210-6561, E-ISSN 2210-657X, Vol. 21, p. 21-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this case study was to investigate what vocational knowing was made available in subject-integrated teaching of four vocational subjects in a Swedish Health and Social Care Program (HSCP). The study was composed of two separate data collections, both ethnographic. The first data collection was performed in autumn 2012 on a theme unit called VIPS, with a group of students (16+), in a Swedish HSCP. Data comprised observations, field notes, and audio recordings of planning and teaching of the theme unit, informal discussions with teachers and students, handouts, a theme booklet, and student assignments. The second data collection was performed during spring 2018 in which life-history interviews focused on documentation were conducted with the teachers involved in the theme unit from 2012. Data comprised audio recordings and time lines. A theoretical framework and analytical work were performed with concepts from Cultural Historical Activity Theory, and from New Literacy Studies. The results indicate that the object in the teaching activity comprised vocational knowing in three areas: psychosis, ethics, and communication, and vocational literacy. Vocational contextualization of teaching was a necessary component that made available vocational knowing that contributed to the students' professional development.

  • 9.
    Christidis, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Ämnesintegrering på vård- och omsorgsprogrammet utifrån ett verksamhetsteoretiskt perspektiv2014Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The study investigated subject integrated teaching and vocational knowledge in one Health and Social Care program. The material was collected ethnographically, during a period of a school semester (5 months), and analysed according to the Activity-Theoretical concepts actions, goals and tools.

    The results identified five goals for subject integrated teaching: the legitimacy of Swedish as a school subject; a focus on linguistic prescriptivism; the identity of vocational subjects; a predominant medical focus in vocational subjects; and a professional language. Further six recurrent tools were identified: a fictional book; a teacher-prepared hand-out; a teacher-constructed case report; teacher-examples from health care; and linguistic rules. There was a theoretical kind of vocational knowledge with focus on language issues, on medical aspects of care, and on a professional language.

    In conclusion, subject integrated teaching contributed with more than each of the specific subjects contributed with and simultaneously tensions between goals representing different subjects were found. However, tools were shared between subjects.

  • 10.
    Christidis, Maria
    et al.
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Health Sciences.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Lärares samverkan för yrkeskunnande: Engl. translation: Teachers’ Cooperation for Vocational Knowing2017In: Yrkesdidaktikens mångfald / [ed] Andreas Fejes, Viveca Lindberg, Gun-Britt Wärvik, Stockholm: Lärarförlaget , 2017, 1Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Based on a study of curriculum integration in Swedish upper secondary education, at a Health and Social Care Programme (Christidis, 2014), the issue of this chapter is how general subjects can contribute to vocational knowing in the interaction between teachers and students. Inspired by an ethnographic approach, classroom observations, interviews and documents formed the data, and for the analysis concepts from activity theory were used. Main results were that teachers’ and students’ experiences used in teaching focused three actors’ perspectives: those of nurse-assistants’, patients’ and relatives’. These were expressed in subject specific as well as interdisciplinary teaching of general and vocational subjects. Using subject integration made it possible for both teachers and students to explore connections between the subjects. Furthermore, subject integration contributed to one of the main goals of the Health and Social Care Programme: to develop a holistic view of the human being.

  • 11.
    Christidis, Maria
    et al.
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Health Sciences. Stockholm University.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University.
    Subject-Integrated Teaching for Expanded Vocational Knowing and Everyday Situations in a Swedish Upper Secondary Health and Social Care Program2019In: Vocations and Learning, ISSN 1874-785X, E-ISSN 1874-7868Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to explore what subject-integrated teaching of vocational subjects, ethics and health care, contributed with in terms of vocational knowing. The case study was ethnographically inspired and followed a group of students (16 +) and their teachers in a Swedish Health and Social Care Program while they worked with a theme unit called Death for two weeks in autumn 2012. Data comprised observations, field notes, and audio recordings of the planning and teaching of the theme unit, informal discussions with teachers and students, handouts, a theme booklet, and student assignments. Analysis was based on concepts related to cultural historical activity theory, especially emphasizing rules, tools, actions, operations, and contradictions. Results showed three major objects emphasized in the teacher–student interaction and the tools chosen to support the subject-integrated teaching activity: vocational knowing related to vocational ethics, to everyday ethics, and argumentative skills. Manifestations of contradictions in the form of dilemmas related to the examples that teachers copied from a textbook. As these examples were mainly contextualized in everyday situations, and there are no formal ethical guidelines for nursing assistants on which teachers could rely on, teachers’ narratives were used to complement these examples. Students’ argumentative skills were emphasized and related to personal situations, in which ethical arguments for justification in vocationally relevant situations were made unclear.

  • 12.
    Díaz, Miguel Mauricio
    Federal University of Uberlandia, Uberlandia, Brazil.
    Chronic stress induces a hyporeactivity of the autonomic nervous system in response to acute mental stressor and impairs cognitive performance in business executives2015In: PLoS ONE, Vol. 10, no 3, article id e0119025Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examined the incidence of chronic stress in business executives (109 subjects: 75 male and 34 female) and its relationship with cortisol levels, cognitive performance, and autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity after an acute mental stressor. Blood samples were collected from the subjects to measure cortisol concentration. After the sample collection, the subjects completed the Lipp Inventory of Stress Symptoms for Adults and the Stroop Color-Word Test to evaluate stress and cognitive performance levels, respectively. Saliva samples were collected prior to, immediately after, and five minutes after the test. The results revealed that 90.1% of the stressed subjects experienced stress phases that are considered chronic stress. At rest, the subjects with chronic stress showed higher cortisol levels, and no gender differences were observed. No differences were found between the stressed and non-stressed subjects regarding salivary amylase activity prior to test. Chronic stress also impaired performance on the Stroop test, which revealed higher rates of error and longer reaction times in the incongruent stimulus task independently of gender. For the congruent stimulus task of the Stroop test, the stressed males presented a higher rate of errors than the non-stressed males and a longer reaction time than the stressed females. After the acute mental stressor, the non-stressed male group showed an increase in salivary alpha-amylase activity, which returned to the initial values five minutes after the test; this ANS reactivity was not observed in the chronically stressed male subjects. The ANS responses of the non-stressed vs stressed female groups were not different prior to or after the Stroop test. This study is the first to demonstrate a blunted reactivity of the ANS when male subjects with chronic psychological stress were subjected to an acute mental stressor, and this change could contribute to impairments in cognitive performance.

  • 13.
    Ekstrand, Per
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Genus- och mångfaldsperspektiv i hälso- och sjukvården2010In: Vårdpedagogiska utmaningar / [ed] Sonia Bentling & Bosse Jonsson, Stockholm: Liber, 2010, p. 156-185Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Ekstrand, Per
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för vård- och folkhälsovetenskap, Västerås .
    Homosociala relationer bland män i vårdyrken: formandet av yrkesidentitet som sjuksköterska.2004Report (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Ekstrand, Per
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    "Tarzan och Jane": Hur män som sjuksköterskor formar sin identitet2005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The study focuses on locally situated interactions between men and women and among men. The main focus is on how men in nursing practice constitute their identities. The aim of the disserta-tion is to understand the meaning of gender, particularly the constitution of masculinities, in the formation of identity for men in nursing.

    Theoretical points of departure were post-structuralist and masculinity theories. Within the theoretical framework, processes of gender should be seen as activities that are relational and integrated in ongoing organisational life, in this case, in the nursing context.

    My methodological approach was qualitative, based on ethnography. Techniques used for data collection were following observations and interviews. I followed seven men in their daily work in two hospital environments, one emergency department and a department in elder care (sheltered housing).

    The gender order was maintained by rewards to medical and technical knowledge and skills. The phenomenon of”gender dizziness” was manifested through interaction and became visible through the men’s practice. Different positions of masculinities co-operated and the physicality of the body was important in performing masculinities. Hegemonic positions of masculinities are maintained and other positions are subordinated. Homosociality creates influence and power in social relations, and it was obvious that the informants in these organisations found ways to keep together, in spite of their different positions in the organisation.

    Some of the informants cross over the border and perform ideals that are not traditional for men in nursing. In the nursing environment these men’s identities show a caring attitude. The stereotype, connected to heteronormative ways of thinking, plays an important role for men in constructing their identities in the nursing context. A central conclusion in this study is that sexuality order put strong pressure on identity formation and the construction of masculinities for men in nursing.

  • 16.
    Ekstrand, Per
    et al.
    Akademin för Hälsa, Vård och Välfärd, Mälardalens högskola.
    Kumpula, Esa
    Om sportens betydelse för manliga relationer i vården2010In: Norma, ISSN 1890-2138, E-ISSN 1890-2146, ISSN 1890-2138, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 60-73Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Institute of Health Care Pedagogics Institutionen för vårdpedagogik, University of Gothenburg.
    Den diplomatiska punkten: maskulinitet som kroppsligt identitetsskapande projekt i svensk sjuksköterskeutbildning2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 18. Eriksson, Henrik
    Kontrasternas Retorik -annanhet, undfallenhet, manlighet2004In: Retorikdagen 22 april. Södertörns Högskola., 2004Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 19.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd.
    Om kulturens manlighetsdressyr1999In: Locus, ISSN 1100-3197, no 3, p. 57-60Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för vård- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Skutt, Skalman and Bamse: Conformity and gender vertigo in the educational system2004In: Karolinska institutet's 7TH Educational Congress, Stockholm, Mars 24, 2004: Programme and abstracts, Stockholm: Karolinska institutet , 2004, p. 45-Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 21.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences.
    St: Olaf Och Liberal arts: reflektioner över en stipendievistelse i Minnesota2006Report (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Velourmannen fortsätter att spöka2005In: Tidningen Alba, ISSN 1403-5448, no 3Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 23.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    et al.
    The Swedish Red Cross University College.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Magnus
    Dalarna Högskola.
    Pringle, Keith
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Virtual Invisible Men: Privacy and invisibility as forms of privilege in online venues for fathers during early parenthood2014In: Culture, Society and Masculinities, ISSN 1941-5583, E-ISSN 1941-5591, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 52-68Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24. Eriksson, S
    et al.
    Hedman, Ann-Marie
    Vad är handledning?: en kvalitativ studie av sjuksköterskestuderandes uppfattningar av handledning i praktisk utbildning1992Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
  • 25.
    Hallberg, David
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Lifelong learning: The social impact of digital villages as community resource centres on disadvantaged women2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this research was to enhance the understanding of what affects the social impact of ICT in lifelong learning on disadvantaged women.

    In contributing to the field of social informatics, this research employs behavioural theories as strategy and analytic possibilities. This research mainly used the Kenyan digital villages as CRCs as settings but did also look beyond such establishments to provide a more solid picture. The studies were located in Kenya with complementary studies in Bolivia, Cameroon, Sri Lanka, and Sweden. The main strategies and methods used were case study, comparative education approaches, and observations and interviewing techniques.

    The findings suggest that ICT and CRCs have the potential to support disadvantaged women and their lifelong learning. However, the positive social impacts are limited because the arrangement of them generally does not favour vernacular languages, illiterate users, female owners and users, or non-students. In general, the use of ICT was sometimes perceived as forced, which is both a barrier and a stressor in the use of ICT in lifelong learning. It also emerged from the comparative studies that discussions among the participants in the CRCs largely covered issues in respect to 1) family and reproduction and 2) self-esteem, i.e. what settles the matter of the social impact of ICT in lifelong learning depends on change attitude among men and women. With minimal if not zero self-esteem a change that would make the difference or break a woman’s “legendary status quo” in order for a woman to feel that she can reach her goal or ambitions in lifelong learning would be difficult. Hence the lack of self-esteem is a stressor in itself.

    This research is valuable for stakeholders delving into issues of development and learning using ICTs, not only in Kenya but in a broader, global perspective.

  • 26.
    Hallberg, David
    KTH, Data- och systemvetenskap, DSV.
    Socioculture and cognitivist perspectives on language and communication barriers in learning2009In: Proceedings of World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, ISSN 2010-376X, E-ISSN 2070-3740, Vol. 36, no 3(12), p. 172-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is believed that major account on language diversity must be taken in learning, and especially in learning using ICT. This paper's objective is to exhibit language and communication barriers in learning, to approach the topic from socioculture and cognitivist perspectives, and to give exploratory solutions of handling such barriers. The review is mainly conducted by approaching the journal Computers & Education, but also an initially broad search was conducted. The results show that not much attention is paid on language and communication barriers in an immediate relation to learning using ICT. The results shows, inter alia, that language and communication barriers are caused because of not enough account is taken on both the individual's background and the technology.

  • 27.
    Hallberg, David
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Public Health and Medicine.
    Telecentros en Bolivia: La Atención en las Mujeres2016In: Revista Caracteres, ISSN 2254-4496, E-ISSN 2254-4496, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 145-167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A telecentre provides communities with limited resources the opportunity to acquire electronic information that is useful for learning and education, societal information, or be it business. The aim of this study was to highlight the importance of the users of telecentres - especially the women - to ensure socially sustainable telecentres. As the main method, we rely on ethnographic field. Findings suggest that most users are students and women. Carrying out further field work will allow monitoring of these women to see if they can motivate other women to start going to the telecentres, and if this behavior of women reflects changes in the traditional model of gender.

  • 28.
    Hallberg, David
    et al.
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Public Health and Medicine. Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University.
    Hansson, Henrik
    Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University.
    Nilsson, Anders G.
    Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University.
    Immigrant Women's Reasoning and Use of Information and Communications Technology in Lifelong Learning2016In: Seminar.net: Media, technology and lifelong learning, ISSN 1504-4831, E-ISSN 1504-4831, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 66-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the reasoning and use of information and communications technology (ICT) in lifelong learning by immigrant women. Data were collected from semi-structured and unstructured interviews. The study was carried out primarily in a school environment, which also makes it possible to draw conclusions about the connection between learning in and outside school environments. Most participants experienced major differences in the use of and access to ICT after moving to their new country. Most women use and access ICT, even if not of their own volition. Providing a summary of some of the benefits and barriers that emerged, our study has shown that it is important to distinguish the way someone reasons about ICT and their actual use of it. No account was taken of cultural differences between the participants’ countries of origin. This study made it possible for the immigrant women to voice their experiences, knowledge, and feelings about their situations in school and in everyday life.

  • 29.
    Hallberg, David
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Hansson, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Nilsson, Anders G.
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Integration and lifelong learning: immigrant women's reasoning and use of information and technologies in lifelong learningArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Hallberg, David
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Kulecho, Mildred
    Kulecho, Ann
    Loreen, Okoth
    Case studies of Kenyan digital villages with a focus on women and girls2011In: Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa, ISSN 1998-1279, E-ISSN 2309-5814, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 255-273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present article refers to a case study on the Kenyan Government’s Digital Villages Project (DVP). The Kenyan Government, together with external stakeholders and private contractors, is increasing their ICT investments to provide the entire population with information and communication regardless of demographic factors. In the Kenyan context, digital villages are what normally other countries refer to as telecentres, i.e. a centre that provides services with regard to Internet and telecommunication. In this case, the digital villages also offer education, learning, and e-Government. The present study wants to learn whether DVP is accessible, and appropriate to women and girls in resource-poor environments and, thus, successful. The following questions guided the study: 1. Who are the users of Pasha Centres? 2. How and for what purposes are Pasha Centres used? 3. In what way do Pasha Centres consider local needs (e.g. education, literacy, job, and diversity)? 4. What do users and managers do to encourage female users? The study is built upon observations and interviews. The results show that male users generally believe that women have a lack of knowledge and understanding of ICT. The results also show that what is said by the government is not fully implemented at the local levels. The authors believe, despite this, that DVP has the potential to serve the population in vulnerable areas and that the government should continue focusing on similar projects.

  • 31.
    Hallberg, David
    et al.
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Public Health and Medicine.
    Olsson, Ulf
    Department of Computer and Systems Sciences (DSV), Stockholm University.
    Self-Regulated Learning in Students' Thesis Writing2017In: International Journal of Teaching & Education, ISSN 2336-2022, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 13-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to find answers to how self-regulated learning (SRL) and cooperation learning orientation correlate with study success. At DSV, a department of Stockholm University, a web based support system for students’ thesis writing referred to as SciPro was implemented. The system also allowed for statistics of thesis process. Through the SciPro system, we were able to retrieve students and supervisors; data were retrieved from 45 supervisors and 47 students with regard to their respective responsibilities in the thesis writing process. Vermunt’s instrument, Inventory of Learning Styles (ILS), was employed to measure students’ SRL. Overall, the relation between SRL and completed thesis was not as strong as expected.

  • 32.
    Hamada, Etsuko
    et al.
    Japanese Red Cross College of Nursing, Tokyo, Japan.
    Higashiura, Hiroshi
    Japanese Red Cross College of Nursing, Tokyo, Japan.
    Kawashima, Midori
    Japanese Red Cross College of Nursing, Tokyo, Japan.
    Takei, Asako
    Japanese Red Cross College of Nursing, Tokyo, Japan.
    Sasaki, Ikumi
    Japanese Red Cross College of Nursing, Tokyo, Japan.
    Honjo, Keiko
    Japanese Red Cross College of Nursing, Tokyo, Japan.
    Kawahara, Yukari
    Japanese Red Cross College of Nursing, Tokyo, Japan.
    Yoshida, Mitsuko
    Japanese Red Cross College of Nursing, Tokyo, Japan.
    Gardulf, Ann
    Red Cross University College of Nursing. Karolinska Institutet.
    Nilsson, Jan
    Red Cross University College of Nursing. Karlstad University.
    Okamoto, Nahoko
    Japanese Red Cross College of Nursing, Tokyo, Japan.
    Red Cross/Red Crescent & Nursing Education: A research toward establishing international networking2010Report (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Holmgren, Jessica
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Postkoloniala blickar på konstruktionen av ”den Andre"2014In: Vårdvetenskap och postmodernitet: en introduktion / [ed] Henrik Eriksson, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2014, 1, p. 113-144Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Holmgren, Jessica
    et al.
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Health Sciences.
    Kraft, Mia
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Health Sciences.
    A global nursing framework in the Swedish Red Cross undergraduate nursing program2018In: Nordic journal of nursing research, ISSN 2057-1585, E-ISSN 2057-1593, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 167-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alongside a globalized world and a demographic shift in Sweden, future nurses must provide globally significant nursing care based on relevant knowledges and skills. To contribute to the global nursing discourse, this article aims to describe the process undertaken in developing and implementing a global nursing approach and curriculum in the Swedish Red Cross undergraduate nursing program. A comprehensive process of educational change was carried out, targeting both faculty and students with various academic activities. The new global-oriented curriculum was evaluated positively by nursing students, and a definition of global nursing was disseminated among educators. Nursing students at the Swedish Red Cross University College are now encouraged to advocate for vulnerable persons in need of healthcare services and to counteract inequalities and social injustice in sustainable ways. It is suggested that a global nursing framework is what is required when educating nurses to meet tomorrow’s nursing care needs.

  • 35.
    Hooper, Michael
    et al.
    Graduate School of Design , Harvard University , Cambridge, MA , USA.
    Cadstedt, Jenny
    Red Cross University College of Nursing.
    Moving Beyond ‘Community’ Participation: Perceptions of Renting and the Dynamics of Participation Around Urban Development in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania2014In: International Planning Studies, ISSN 1356-3475, E-ISSN 1469-9265, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 25-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper employs extensive interviews to examine the ways in which perceptions of renting — on the part of renters, owners and other key actors in the development process — influenced the dynamics of participation around two recent urban development projects in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The study responds to concerns that participatory planning too frequently treats communities as homogenous and overlooks barriers to participation faced by marginalized groups, such as renters. The results show that renters were unwilling and often unable to participate due to perceptions, hled by themselves and by others, of renter transience and inconsequentiality. These perceptions led to a cycle of non-participation in which policymakers gave renters' needs little attention in plans and renters were disinclined to participate in mobilization. The results suggest that barriers to renter participation could be reduced if their concerns were proactively given more weight in urban development plans.

  • 36.
    Hägg Martinell, Ann
    et al.
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Health Sciences.
    Hult, Håkan
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Henriksson, Peter
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Kiessling, Anna
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Possibilities for interprofessional learning at a Swedish acute healthcare ward not dedicated to interprofessional education: an ethnographic study2019In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 9, no 7, article id e027590Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Almost all healthcare today is team-based in collaboration over professional borders, and numerous students have work-based learning in such contexts. However, interprofessional learning (IPL) in clinical settings has mostly been systematically explored in specially designed contexts dedicated to interprofessional education (IPE). This study aimed to explore the possibilities for IPL activities, and if or how they occur, in an acute ward context not dedicated to IPE.

    DESIGN AND SETTING: Between 2011 and 2013 ethnographic observations were performed of medical and nursing students' interactions and IPL during early clerkship at an acute internal medicine ward in Sweden. Field notes were taken and analysed based on the framework of IPE: learning with, from and about.

    PARTICIPANTS: 21 medical, 4 nursing students and 30 supervisors participated.

    RESULTS: Learning with-there were no organised IPE activities. Instead, medical and nursing students learnt in parallel. However, students interacted with staff members from other professions. Learning from-interprofessional supervision was frequent. Interprofessional supervision of nursing students by doctors focused on theoretical questions and answers, while interprofessional supervision of medical students by nurses focused on the performance of technical skills. Learning about-students were observed to actively observe interactions between staff and learnt how staff conducted different tasks.

    CONCLUSION: This study shows that there were plenty of possibilities for IPL activities, but the potential was not fully utilised or facilitated. Serendipitous IPL activities differed between observed medical and nursing students. Although interprofessional supervision was fairly frequent, students were not learning with, from or about each other over professional borders.

  • 37.
    Kalén, Susanne
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lachmann, Hanna
    Karolinska Institutet / Sophiahemmet Högskola.
    Varttinen, Maria
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Möller, Riitta
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Bexelius, Tomas S
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ponzer, Sari
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Medical students' experiences of their own professional development during three clinical terms: a prospective follow-up study2017In: BMC Medical Education, ISSN 1472-6920, E-ISSN 1472-6920, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: A modern competency-based medical education is well implemented globally, but less is known about how the included learning activities contribute to medical students' professional development. The aim of this study was to explore Swedish medical students' perceptions of the offered learning activities and their experiences of how these activities were connected to their professional development as defined by the CanMEDS framework.

    METHODS: A prospective mixed method questionnaire study during three terms (internal medicine, scientific project, and surgery) in which data were collected by using contextual activity sampling system, i.e., the students were sent a questionnaire via their mobile phones every third week. All 136 medical students in the 6th of 11 terms in the autumn of 2012 were invited to participate. Seventy-four students (54%) filled in all of the required questionnaires (4 per term) for inclusion, the total number of questionnaires being 1335. The questionnaires focused on the students' experiences of learning activities, especially in relation to the CanMEDS Roles, collaboration with others and emotions (positive, negative, optimal experiences, i.e., "flow") related to the studies. The quantitative data was analysed statistically and, for the open-ended questions, manifest inductive content analysis was used.

    RESULTS: Three of the CanMEDs Roles, Medical Expert, Scholar, and Communicator, were most frequently reported while the four others, e.g., the role Health Advocate, were less common. Collaboration with students from other professions was most usual during the 8th term. Positive emotions and experience of "flow" were most often reported during clinical learning activities while the scientific project term was connected with more negative emotions.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that it is possible, even during clinical courses, to visualise the different areas of professional competence defined in the curriculum and connect these competences to the actual learning activities. Students halfway through their medical education considered the most important learning activities for their professional development to be connected with the Roles of Medical Expert, Scholar, and Communicator. Given that each of the CanMEDS Roles is at least moderately important during undergraduate medical education, the entire spectrum of the Roles should be emphasised and developed during the clinical years.

  • 38.
    Lachmann, Hanna
    Sophiahemmet Högskola.
    Interprofessionellt lärande i verksamhetsförlagd utbildning2017In: Vårdpedagogik: vårdens kärnkompetenser från ett pedagogiskt perspektiv / [ed] Margret Lepp & Janeth Leksell, Stockholm: Liber, 2017, 1, p. 218-234Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Lachmann, Hanna
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet / Sophiahemmet Högskola.
    Fossum, Bjöörn
    Sophiahemmet Högskola / Karolinska Institutet.
    Johansson, Unn-Britt
    Karolinska Institutet / Sophiahemmet Högskola.
    Karlgren, Klas
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ponzer, Sari
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Promoting reflection by using contextual activity sampling: a study on students' interprofessional learning2014In: Journal of Interprofessional Care, ISSN 1356-1820, E-ISSN 1469-9567, Vol. 28, no 5, p. 400-406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Students' engagement and reflection on learning activities are important during interprofessional clinical practice. The contextual activity sampling system (CASS) is a methodology designed for collecting data on experiences of ongoing activities by frequent distribution of questionnaires via mobile phones. The aim of this study was to investigate if the use of the CASS methodology affected students' experiences of their learning activities, readiness for interprofessional learning, academic emotions and experiences of interprofessional team collaboration. Student teams, consisting of 33 students in total from four different healthcare programs, were randomized into an intervention group that used CASS or into a control group that did not use CASS. Both quantitative (questionnaires) and qualitative (interviews) data were collected. The results showed that students in the intervention group rated teamwork and collaboration significantly higher after than before the course, which was not the case in the control group. On the other hand, the control group reported experiencing more stress than the intervention group. The qualitative data showed that CASS seemed to support reflection and also have a positive impact on students' experiences of ongoing learning activities and interprofessional collaboration. In conclusion, the CASS methodology provides support for students in their understanding of interprofessional teamwork.

  • 40.
    Manninen, Katri
    et al.
    Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet.
    Scheja, Max
    Department of Education, Faculty of Social Science, Stockholm University.
    Welin Henriksson, Elisabet
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet.
    Silén, Charlotte
    Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet.
    Self-centeredness or patient-centeredness–final year nursing students’ experiences of learning at a clinical education ward2013In: Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, ISSN 1925-4040, E-ISSN 1925-4059, Vol. 3, no 12, p. 187-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Different types of clinical education wards with the aim of facilitating transition from student to professional have been established giving students more autonomy and responsibility. Studies report positive effects but deeper understanding concerning how clinical education wards can contribute to learning for students nearing graduation is needed.

    Aim: To explore final year nursing students’ experiences of learning when they are supported to take care of patients independently.

    Methods: The context for this study was a clinical education ward for nursing students at a university hospital in Sweden. Individual and group interviews with 18 students of 29 eligible students were conducted after their clinical practice. The data was analyzed using qualitative content analysis with a focus on students’ experiences of their encounters with patients, supervisors, students and other professionals.

    Results: The two main themes appeared as important aspects influencing final year students’ learning, uncertainty as a threshold and experiencing engagement. Sub-themes characterizing uncertainty as a threshold were self-centeredness and ambivalence describing the patient from the perspective of performing nursing tasks. Sub-themes characterizing experiencing engagement were creating mutual relationship and professional development. Caring for patients with extensive need for nursing care helped the students to become patient-centered and overcome the threshold, experience engagement and authenticity in learning the profession.

    Conclusions: A clinical education ward may enhance the students’ experience of both external and internal authenticity enabling meaningful learning and professional development. It is important to acknowledge final year nursing students’ need for both challenges and support in the stressful transition from student to professional. Therefore, an explicit pedagogical framework based on patient-centered care and encouraging students to take responsibility should be used to help the students to overcome self-centeredness and to focus on the patients’ needs and nursing care.

  • 41.
    Manninen, Katri
    et al.
    Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet.
    Welin Henriksson, Elisabet
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet.
    Scheja, Max
    Faculty of Social Science, Department of Education, Stockholm University.
    Silén, Charlotte
    Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet.
    Authenticity in learning: nursing students’ experiences at a clinical education ward2013In: Health Education, ISSN 0965-4283, E-ISSN 1758-714X, Vol. 113, no 2, p. 132-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose– This study aims to explore and understand first year nursing students’ experiences of learning at a clinical education ward.

    Design/methodology/approach– The setting is a clinical education ward for nursing students at a department of infectious diseases. A qualitative study was carried out exploring students’ encounters with patients, supervisors, students and other health care professionals. A total of 19 students were interviewed. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis investigating both the manifest and the latent content.

    Findings– The most important components in students’ learning are mutual relationships and a sense of belongingness. A mutual relationship between the students and the patients is created and becomes the basis of students’ learning. Belongingness means the students’ experience of being for real a part of the team taking care of the patients.

    Research limitations/implications– The study, while linked to a particular teaching hospital, offers insights of more general nature by linking the findings to a theory of transformative learning.

    Originality/value– This study adds a deeper understanding of students’ perspectives of significant characteristics to take into account when organizing clinical practice in health care education. Being entrusted and supported by a team of supervisors to take care of patients at a clinical education ward early in the education program provides an experience of internal and external authenticity. The students learn from, with and through the patients, which contributes to meaningful learning, understanding nursing, and professional development.

  • 42.
    Manninen, Katri
    et al.
    Department of Learning, Karolinska Institutet, Informatics, Management and Ethics.
    Welin Henriksson, Elisabet
    Department of Neurobiology, Karolinska Institutet; Care Sciences and Society.
    Scheja, Max
    Department of Education, Stockholm University.
    Silén, Charlotte
    Department of Learning, Karolinska Institutet, Informatics, Management and Ethics.
    Patients' approaches to students' learning at a clinical education ward: an ethnographic study2014In: BMC Medical Education, ISSN 1472-6920, E-ISSN 1472-6920, Vol. 14, article id 131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: It is well known that patients' involvement in health care students' learning is essential and gives students opportunities to experience clinical reasoning and practice clinical skills when interacting with patients. Students encounter patients in different contexts throughout their education. However, looking across the research providing evidence about learning related to patient-student encounters reveals a lack of knowledge about the actual learning process that occurs in encounters between patients and students. The aim of this study was to explore patient-student encounters in relation to students' learning in a patient-centered health-care setting.

    METHODS: An ethnographic approach was used to study the encounters between patients and students. The setting was a clinical education ward for nursing students at a university hospital with eight beds. The study included 10 observations with 11 students and 10 patients. The observer followed one or two students taking care of one patient. During the fieldwork observational and reflective notes were taken. After each observation follow-up interviews were conducted with each patient and student separately. Data were analyzed using an ethnographic approach.

    RESULTS: The most striking results showed that patients took different approaches in the encounters with students. When the students managed to create a good atmosphere and a mutual relationship, the patients were active participants in the students' learning. If the students did not manage to create a good atmosphere, the relationship became one-way and the patients were passive participants, letting the students practice on their bodies but without engaging in a dialogue with the students.

    CONCLUSIONS: Patient-student encounters, at a clinical education ward with a patient-centred pedagogical framework, can develop into either a learning relationship or an attending relationship. A learning relationship is based on a mutual relationship between patients and students resulting in patients actively participating in students' learning and they both experience it as a joint action. An attending relationship is based on a one-way relationship between patients and students resulting in patients passively participating by letting students to practice on their bodies but without engaging in a learning dialogue with the students.

  • 43.
    Manninen, Katri
    et al.
    Karolinska University Hospital.
    Welin Henriksson, Elisabet
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Scheja, Max
    Stockholm University.
    Silén, Charlotte
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Supervisors’ pedagogical role at a clinical education ward: an ethnographic study2015In: BMC Nursing, ISSN 1472-6955, E-ISSN 1472-6955, Vol. 14, article id 55Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 44. Mattsson, Lin
    et al.
    Wedin, Marit
    Segenstedt, Alexandra
    Eriksson Ahlén, Johanna
    Zamacona Aguirre, Maite
    Hadzihasanovic, Lejla
    Jonsson, Ewa (Editor)
    Genusperspektiv: i asylprocessen och vid återvändandet2015Report (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Meier, Lars
    et al.
    Technische Universität Berlin, Germany.
    Frers, Lars
    Telemark University College, Norway.
    Sigvardsdotter, Erika
    Uppsala universitet, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    The importance of absence in the present: practices of remembrance and the contestation of absences2013In: Cultural Geographies, ISSN 1474-4740, E-ISSN 1477-0881, Vol. 20, no 4 SI, p. 423-430Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Muukkonen, H.
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Inkinen, M.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Kosonen, K.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Hakkarainen, K.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Vesikivi, P.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Lachmann, Hanna
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Karlgren, K.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Research on knowledge practices with the contextual activity sampling system2009In: CSCL'09 Proceedings of the 9th international conference on Computer supported collaborative learning: June 8-13, 2009, Rhodes, Greece :  Volume 1 / [ed] Claire O'Malley; Daniel Suthers; Peter Reimann; Angelique Dimitracopoulou, International Society of the Learning Sciences , 2009, p. 385-394Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Contextual Activity Sampling System (CASS) research methodology and the CASS-Query application have been developed for contextually tracking of activities with a mobile phone. The method relies on frequent sampling of participants' practices and affects during periods of intensive follow-up. Two research designs provide an account of the methodological development work and the possibilities offered by CASS. The first study followed five student-groups longitudinally to examine evolution of academic knowledge practices. The findings from the second year data-collection show that trialogical practices were considered challenging, but often generated optimal-flow experiences. The second study investigated interprofessional work during a clinical course. Based on this pilot study, it was concluded that the data collected about activities and experiences over time extend the understanding of students' practices beyond what can be acquired by post-course questionnaires and can help in development of the design of interprofessional education in medicine and healthcare.

  • 47.
    Paillard-Borg, Stéphanie
    et al.
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Health Sciences.
    Hallberg, David
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Health Sciences.
    The Other Side of the Mirror: An Analytic Journalistic Approach to the Subjective Well-Being of Filipino Women Migrant Workers in Japan2018In: SAGE Open, ISSN 2158-2440, E-ISSN 2158-2440, Vol. 8, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In its political structural reform, the Japanese government presents the urgency to consider an increase in labor mobility that includes the issue of immigration to Japan. Women from Southeast Asia represent a large proportion of this immigration. The aim of this case study was to identify factors associated with subjective well-being (SWB) among Filipino women migrant workers in Tokyo, Japan. The study used an analytic journalistic approach. A focus group interview was conducted with three women and the data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Communication, support network, faith, and sense of identity were identified as the main factors contributing to SWB among these women. In conclusion, the feminization of migration will continue; therefore, better understanding about the factors associated to SWB is needed to ease the impact of migration on home and host countries.

  • 48.
    Paillard-Borg, Stéphanie
    et al.
    Red Cross University College of Nursing.
    Strömberg, Lars
    Red Cross University College of Nursing.
    The importance of reciprocity for female caregivers in a super-aged society: a qualitative journalistic approach2014In: Health Care for Women International, ISSN 0739-9332, E-ISSN 1096-4665, Vol. 35, no 11-12, p. 1367-1379Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 49. Saboonchi, Fredrik
    Den skapande människans tolerans2012In: Tolerera: en antologi om intolerans och tolerans ur ett psykologiskt perspektiv / [ed] Jon Brunberg, Stockholm: Forum för levande historia , 2012, p. 17-37Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 50.
    Saboonchi, Fredrik
    Stockholms universitet, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Perfectionsim: Conceptual, Emotional, Psychopathological, and Health-Related Implications2000Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
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