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  • 1.
    Aceijas, Carmen
    et al.
    Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER), Brussels, Belgium; School of Health Sciences, University of Salford, Salford, Greater Manchester, UK..
    Brall, Caroline
    Department of International Health, School CAPHRI, Maastricht University, The Netherlands.
    Schröder-Bäck, Peter
    Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER), Brussels, Belgium.
    Otok, Robert
    Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER), Brussels, Belgium.
    Maeckelberghe, Els
    Institute for Medical Education, University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Stjernberg, Louise
    Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER), Brussels, Belgium; School of Health Science, Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Strech, Daniel
    School of Health Science, Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Tulchinsky, Theodore H
    Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER), Brussels, Belgium; Braun School of Public Health, Hebrew University-Hadassah, Ein Karem, Jerusalem, Israel.
    Teaching Ethics in Schools of Public Health in the European Region: Findings from a Screening Survey2012In: Public Health Reviews, ISSN 0301-0422, E-ISSN 2107-6952, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A survey targeting ASPHER members was launched in 2010/11, being a first initiative in improving ethics education in European Schools of Public Health. An 8-items questionnaire collected information on teaching of ethics in public health. A 52% response rate (43/82) revealed that almost all of the schools (95% out of 40 respondents with valid data) included the teaching of ethics in at least one of its programmes. They also expressed the need of support, (e.g.: a model curriculum (n=25), case studies (n=24)), which indicates further work to be met by the ASPHER Working Group on Ethics and Values in Public Health.

  • 2.
    Anderberg, Peter
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Björling, Gunilla
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Health Sciences. Karolinska Institute.
    Stjernberg, Louise
    The Swedish Red Cross University College. Region of Blekinge.
    Bohman, Doris
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Analyzing Nursing Students' Relation to Electronic Health and Technology as Individuals and Students and in Their Future Career (the eNursEd Study): Protocol for a Longitudinal Study2019In: JMIR Research Protocols, ISSN 1929-0748, E-ISSN 1929-0748, Vol. 8, no 10, article id e14643Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The nursing profession has undergone several changes in the past decades, and new challenges are to come in the future; patients are now cared for in their home, hospitals are more specialized, and primary care will have a key role. Health informatics is essential in all core competencies in nursing. From an educational perspective, it is of great importance that students are prepared for the new demands and needs of the patients. From a societal point of view, the society, health care included, is facing several challenges related to technological developments and digitization. Preparation for the next decade of nursing education and practice must be done, without the advantage of certainty. A training for not-yet-existing technologies where educators should not be limited by present practice paradigms is desirable. This study presents the design, method, and protocol for a study that investigates undergraduate nursing students' internet use, knowledge about electronic health (eHealth), and attitudes to technology and how experiences of eHealth are handled during the education in a multicenter study.

    OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this research project is to describe the design of a longitudinal study and a qualitative substudy consisting of the following aspects that explore students' knowledge about and relation to technology and eHealth: (1) what pre-existing knowledge and interest of this area the nursing students have and (2) how (and if) is it present in their education, (3) how do the students perceive this knowledge in their future career role, and (4) to what extent is the education capable of managing this knowledge?

    METHODS: The study consists of two parts: a longitudinal study and a qualitative substudy. Students from the BSc in Nursing program from the Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden, and from the Swedish Red Cross University College, Stockholm/Huddinge, Sweden, were included in this study.

    RESULTS: The study is ongoing. Data analysis is currently underway, and the first results are expected to be published in 2019.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study presents the design of a longitudinal study and a qualitative substudy. The eHealth in Nursing Education eNursEd study will answer several important questions about nursing students' attitudes toward and use of information and communications technology in their private life, their education, and their emerging profession. Knowledge from this study will be used to compare different nursing programs and students' knowledge about and relation to technology and eHealth. Results will also be communicated back to nursing educators to improve the teaching of eHealth, health informatics, and technology.

    INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/14643.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Ann-Christine
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Kvalitetsteknik.
    Elg, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Kvalitetsteknik.
    Idvall, Ewa
    Malmö högskola, Fakulteten för Hälsa och samhälle.
    Perseius, Kent-Inge
    Landstinget i Kalmar län.
    Five Types of Practice-Based Improvement Ideas in Health Care Services: An Empirically Defined Typology2011In: Quality Management in Health Care, ISSN 1063-8628, E-ISSN 1550-5154, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 122-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to empirically identify and present different kinds of practice-based improvement ideas developed in health care services. The focus is on individual placement needs, problems/issues, and the ability to organize work on the development, implementation, and institutionalization of ideas for the health care sector. This study is based on a Swedish county council improvement program. Health care departments and primary health care centers in the Kalmar County Council were invited to apply for money to accomplish improvement projects. A qualitative content analysis was done of 183 proposed applications from various health care departments and primary health care centers. The following 5 types of improvement projects were identified: organizational process, evidence and quality, competence development, process technology, and proactive patient work. This illustrates the range of strategies that encourage letting individual units define their own improvement needs. These projects point to the various problems and experiences health care professionals encounter in their day-to-day work. To generalize beyond this improvement program and to validate the typology, we applied it to all articles found when searching for quality improvement projects in the journal Quality Management in Health Care during the last 2 years and found that all of them could be fitted into at least 1 of those 5 categories. This article provides valuable insights into the current state of improvemen work in Swedish health care, and will serve as a foundation for further investigations in this quality improvement program.

  • 4.
    Arwidson, Charlotta
    et al.
    Svenska Röda Korset.
    Pernold, Maria
    Svenska Röda Korset.
    Hallstedt, Lisa
    Svenska Röda Korset.
    Dolietis, Sandra
    Svenska Röda Korset.
    Ekbom, Inger
    Stockholms Stadsmission.
    Secher, Åsa
    Ahlenius, Andrea
    Röster från skuggsamhället: att leva som paperslös i Sverige2015Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 5.
    Cadstedt, Jenny
    Department of Human Geography, Stockholm University.
    Influence and invisibility: tenants in housing provision in Mwanza City, Tanzania2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A high proportion of urban residents in Tanzanian cities are tenants who rent rooms in privately owned houses in unplanned settlements. However, in housing policy and in urban planning rental tenure gets very little attention. This study focuses on the reasons for and consequences of this discrepancy between policy and practice.

    Perspectives and actions of different actors involved in the housing provision process in Mwanza City, Tanzania, have been central to the research. The examined actors are residents in various housing tenure forms as well as government officials and representatives at different levels, from the neighbourhood level to UN-Habitat. The main methods have been interviews and discussions with actors as well as studies of policy documents, laws and plans.

    Among government actors, private rental tenure is largely seen as an issue between landlords and tenants. Tanzanian housing policy focuses more on land for housing than on shelter. This means that house-owners who control land have a more important role in urban planning and policies than tenants have. In Tanzania in general and in Mwanza in particular, housing policy focuses on residents’ involvement in upgrading unplanned areas by organising in Community Based Organisations. This means that owners who live for a longer period in an area benefit more from settlement improvements than tenants. Tenants are relatively mobile and do not take for granted that they will stay in the same house for long. This raises the question of tenants’ possibilities to influence as well as their rights as citizens as compared to that of owners. The question of citizens’ rights for dwellers in informal settlements has received increased attention during the last years in international housing policy discussions. There is an evident need to intensify and diversify this discussion.

  • 6.
    Cadstedt, Jenny
    Department of Human Geography, Stockholm University.
    Private rental housing in Tanzania: a private matter?2010In: Habitat International, ISSN 0197-3975, E-ISSN 1873-5428, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 46-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Secure tenure, the citizenship rights of slum dwellers, and community participation are key words in the international discourse on housing policy. This paper reports the results from a study of private rental housing and tenants in unplanned settlements in Mwanza City, Tanzania. It examines the tenants' position in Tanzanian housing policy discourse, considers government housing policy and private rental tenure practices, and explores how the discussion about secure tenure in urban areas is focused on the formalisation of land. In 2005, rental legislation was changed in Tanzania because it was thought to be overly protective of tenants. Since then, tenants in rental housing have been ignored in the national policy discourse, despite the quantitative importance of rental housing in metropolitan Tanzania. The government has concluded that home ownership is the norm in Tanzania, and it regards private rental tenure as a private matter. It does not monitor conditions in the private rental market. In this paper, I suggest that the urban housing situation in Tanzania will not improve until the government acknowledges private rental tenure, views the tenants as urban citizens, and then attends to their needs and interests. One way to start this process is to educate landlords and tenants about their rights and obligations under housing contracts. This would help to reduce the number of conflicts in rental housing and bring about a more secure tenure situation for many residents.

  • 7.
    Cadstedt, Jenny
    Nordic Africa Institute, Sweden and the Department of Human Geography, Stockholm University.
    Tenants' and owners' participation in rotating savings groups and help groups: A study of housing tenure forms and social inclusion in Mwanza city, Tanzania2012In: IDPR. International Development Planning Review, ISSN 1474-6743, E-ISSN 1478-3401, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 19-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    International policy emphasises the importance of slum dwellers' rights of access to cities and their social inclusion. Legalisation of land holdings in informal settlements is one way of enacting this policy. However, this measure favours house owners over the large proportion of tenants renting rooms in private houses in informal settlements in many cities in the global South. Rental housing is neglected by many governments. What role does the form of house tenure play in other processes of social inclusion in informal settlements? This article examines one of many forms of social inclusion: participation of tenants and owners in rotating savings groups and help groups in two areas in Mwanza city, Tanzania. The results indicate that both tenants and owners participate in groups, which are based not only on the geographical area of residence but on work, ethnicity and religion. The study also indicates that not all groups accept tenants as members, because of their high mobility.

  • 8.
    Cadstedt, Jenny
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Tenants in Tanzania, invisible dwellers?2005In: Global tenant : quarterly magazine for the IUT - International Union of Tenants, no August, p. 4-5Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 9.
    Christidis, Maria
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Health Sciences.
    A Review of International Nursing-related Vocational and Educational Training on the issue of integrated teaching2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The review focus was to systematize, describe and critically analyze previous international research on school-based integrated teaching for vocational knowing in nursing-related education in upper secondary and higher-level education. The review questions were: a) What kind of integration was conducted within a school context in nursing-related education? b) What in terms of vocational knowing was highlighted as a result in the studies through integrated teaching? c) What was the relation between study aim and analytical method for the vocational knowing that was highlighted?

    Summary of Work: Searches were conducted in two databases, EbscoHost, and ProQuest Social Sciences. Search terms ‘integrated teaching’, ‘vocational knowing’ and ‘nursing’, retrieved from the databases, were combined with “AND”. Search area was expanded by terms ‘education’, ‘curriculum’, ‘vocational’, and specified with ‘thematical integration’. Delimitations comprised admitted approaches of integration (Case Method, Problem-based Learning), and were set to scholarly, peer-reviewed articles. The first sorting comprised assessment of abstracts, while the second sorting comprised whole articles. Reference-lists of included studies were assessed for inclusion. Altogether, 14 studies were included and assessed for quality and coherence with Grade CerQual.

    Summary of Results:The results showed three types of integrated teaching, integration through embeddedness or streaks, problem-based learning, and between school and workplace; vocational knowing related to a professional and academic context; and there was a methodological significance for the type of vocational knowing highlighted in the studies.

    Discussion and Conclusions: Integrated teaching with professional connection was stressed as significant for vocational knowing, because of authenticity and meaningfulness. Vocational knowing of academic character required a professional contextualization for meaningfulness. The primary studies highlighted quantitative methodology as quality measure and by passed epistemological (constructivism and positivism) aspects. A quantitative method of approach was shown as the quality measure in primary studies. The notion of quality requires expansion with more qualitative studies, that focus on minor student groups and specific didactic situations for an in-depth understanding of integrated teaching and vocational knowing in nursing.

    Take-home Messages: Integrated teaching is an admitted didactical approach but highly significant for vocational knowing.

  • 10.
    Christidis, Maria
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Health Sciences. Stockholm University.
    Integrated teaching for vocational knowing: A systematic review of research on nursing-related vocational education and training2019In: Nordic Journal of Vocational Education and Training, ISSN 2242-458X, E-ISSN 2242-458X, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 19-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim for this review was to systematize, describe and critically analyse previous research concerning school-based integrated teaching for vocational knowing in nursingrelated training in upper secondary and in higher level education. Searches were conducted in four databases, two specifically for Swedish hits, and two for international hits. Also, search was made in a Nordic journal on vocational education and training. References in included studies were also assessed for further inclusion of studies. Altogether, 14 studies were included and assessed for quality and coherence with GRADE CERQual. Review findings comprised three types of integrated teaching, through embeddedness or streaks, problem-based learning, and between school and workplace; vocational knowing relating to a professional and academic context; and methodological significance for the vocational knowing highlighted in the studies. In conclusion, the methodological approach typically used in the primary studies related to a quantitative approach, which was also discerned as quality measure. The primary studies brought forward a partial understanding of integrated teaching and vocational knowing, which is dependent on the methodological approach. In order to enhance understanding about the research topic, there is a need for more studies on integrated teaching utilizing a qualitative approach.

  • 11.
    Christidis, Maria
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Health Sciences.
    Teaching communication in nursing assistants training on a Swedish upper secondary Health and Social Care Program2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Christidis, Maria
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Health Sciences. Stockholm University.
    Tools for subject integrated teaching and the formation of vocational knowledge in one Swedish Health and Social Care Program2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the main study was to investigate subject integrated teaching in an upper-secondary Health and Social Care program and the vocational knowledge that was shaped in teaching. The aim of this presentation is to highlight a teacher-constructed case report as a tool for subject integration, the use of the tool for integration and the kind of vocational knowledge that is shaped through the use of the tool.

    The material was collected ethnographically and comprised of observation on teaching, with the case report as a base, during a theme unit called “Professional language”. The material further comprised of field-notes on teaching, interviews and informal discussions, sound-recording of teaching and material handed out during teaching. The material was analysed according to Activity-Theoretical concepts of actions, goals and tools.

    The results identifiedthat the case report had a vocational origin but had been modified to an educational context. This qualified the case report as a boundary object. It was used by a teacher of core-subjects in teaching to highlight content related to Swedish and to vocational subjects, but also content that related to the theme unit.

    In conclusion, the use of the teacher-constructed case report in subject integrated teaching helped shape additional vocational knowledge compared to subject-specific teaching.

  • 13.
    Christidis, Maria
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Health Sciences.
    Two Swedish PhD-programmes in Vocational Pedagogy  : Background, Aims and Strategies2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Christidis, Maria
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Health Sciences. Stockholm University.
    Vocational knowing in subject integrated teaching: A case study in a Swedish upper secondary health and social care program2019In: Learning, Culture and Social Interaction, ISSN 2210-6561, E-ISSN 2210-657X, Vol. 21, p. 21-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this case study was to investigate what vocational knowing was made available in subject-integrated teaching of four vocational subjects in a Swedish Health and Social Care Program (HSCP). The study was composed of two separate data collections, both ethnographic. The first data collection was performed in autumn 2012 on a theme unit called VIPS, with a group of students (16+), in a Swedish HSCP. Data comprised observations, field notes, and audio recordings of planning and teaching of the theme unit, informal discussions with teachers and students, handouts, a theme booklet, and student assignments. The second data collection was performed during spring 2018 in which life-history interviews focused on documentation were conducted with the teachers involved in the theme unit from 2012. Data comprised audio recordings and time lines. A theoretical framework and analytical work were performed with concepts from Cultural Historical Activity Theory, and from New Literacy Studies. The results indicate that the object in the teaching activity comprised vocational knowing in three areas: psychosis, ethics, and communication, and vocational literacy. Vocational contextualization of teaching was a necessary component that made available vocational knowing that contributed to the students' professional development.

  • 15.
    Christidis, Maria
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Health Sciences.
    Vocational knowledge in a Subject Integrated Form of Teaching at two Swedish Health and Social care Program2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Christidis, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Ämnesintegrering på vård- och omsorgsprogrammet utifrån ett verksamhetsteoretiskt perspektiv2014Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The study investigated subject integrated teaching and vocational knowledge in one Health and Social Care program. The material was collected ethnographically, during a period of a school semester (5 months), and analysed according to the Activity-Theoretical concepts actions, goals and tools.

    The results identified five goals for subject integrated teaching: the legitimacy of Swedish as a school subject; a focus on linguistic prescriptivism; the identity of vocational subjects; a predominant medical focus in vocational subjects; and a professional language. Further six recurrent tools were identified: a fictional book; a teacher-prepared hand-out; a teacher-constructed case report; teacher-examples from health care; and linguistic rules. There was a theoretical kind of vocational knowledge with focus on language issues, on medical aspects of care, and on a professional language.

    In conclusion, subject integrated teaching contributed with more than each of the specific subjects contributed with and simultaneously tensions between goals representing different subjects were found. However, tools were shared between subjects.

  • 17.
    Christidis, Maria
    et al.
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Health Sciences.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Lärares samverkan för yrkeskunnande: Engl. translation: Teachers’ Cooperation for Vocational Knowing2017In: Yrkesdidaktikens mångfald / [ed] Andreas Fejes, Viveca Lindberg, Gun-Britt Wärvik, Stockholm: Lärarförlaget , 2017, 1Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Based on a study of curriculum integration in Swedish upper secondary education, at a Health and Social Care Programme (Christidis, 2014), the issue of this chapter is how general subjects can contribute to vocational knowing in the interaction between teachers and students. Inspired by an ethnographic approach, classroom observations, interviews and documents formed the data, and for the analysis concepts from activity theory were used. Main results were that teachers’ and students’ experiences used in teaching focused three actors’ perspectives: those of nurse-assistants’, patients’ and relatives’. These were expressed in subject specific as well as interdisciplinary teaching of general and vocational subjects. Using subject integration made it possible for both teachers and students to explore connections between the subjects. Furthermore, subject integration contributed to one of the main goals of the Health and Social Care Programme: to develop a holistic view of the human being.

  • 18.
    Christidis, Maria
    et al.
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Health Sciences. Stockholm University.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University.
    Subject-Integrated Teaching for Expanded Vocational Knowing and Everyday Situations in a Swedish Upper Secondary Health and Social Care Program2019In: Vocations and Learning, ISSN 1874-785X, E-ISSN 1874-7868, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 479-498Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to explore what subject-integrated teaching of vocational subjects, ethics and health care, contributed with in terms of vocational knowing. The case study was ethnographically inspired and followed a group of students (16 +) and their teachers in a Swedish Health and Social Care Program while they worked with a theme unit called Death for two weeks in autumn 2012. Data comprised observations, field notes, and audio recordings of the planning and teaching of the theme unit, informal discussions with teachers and students, handouts, a theme booklet, and student assignments. Analysis was based on concepts related to cultural historical activity theory, especially emphasizing rules, tools, actions, operations, and contradictions. Results showed three major objects emphasized in the teacher–student interaction and the tools chosen to support the subject-integrated teaching activity: vocational knowing related to vocational ethics, to everyday ethics, and argumentative skills. Manifestations of contradictions in the form of dilemmas related to the examples that teachers copied from a textbook. As these examples were mainly contextualized in everyday situations, and there are no formal ethical guidelines for nursing assistants on which teachers could rely on, teachers’ narratives were used to complement these examples. Students’ argumentative skills were emphasized and related to personal situations, in which ethical arguments for justification in vocationally relevant situations were made unclear.

  • 19.
    Dyar, Anna
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lachmann, Hanna
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Health Sciences. Karolinska Institutet.
    Stenfors, Terese
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Kiessling, Anna
    Karolinska Institutet.
    The learning environment on a student ward: an observational study2019In: Perspectives on medical education, ISSN 2212-2761, Vol. 8, no 5, p. 276-283Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Worldwide, a growing number of healthcare students require clinical environments for learning. Some wards have become adapted 'student wards' to meet this demand. Benefits have been reported from the students', supervisors' and patients' perspectives. There is no definition of a student ward, and little research on what the term means. A deeper understanding of the characteristics of student wards is needed to support their use. The aim of this study is to describe what characterises the learning environment on one student ward.

    METHODS: An ethnographic approach was used for an observational study on a student ward in a hospital in Sweden. Student nurses, supervisors and others on the ward were observed. Field notes were thematically analysed.

    RESULTS: Four themes were identified: 'Student-led learning' described students learning by actively performing clinical tasks and taking responsibility for patients and for their own learning. 'Learning together' described peer learning and supervision. 'Staff's approach to learning' described personalised relationships between the students and staff and the build-up of trust, the unified inter-professional approach to teaching, and the supervisors' motivation for teaching and for their own learning. 'Student-dedicated space' described the effect of the student room on the learning environment.

    DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: This study describes the characteristics of a student ward that centred around a community of practice that shared a view of learning as a priority, allowing staff to provide clinical care without compromising students' learning. This qualitative study at a single centre lays the groundwork for future research into other student wards.

  • 20.
    Díaz, Miguel Mauricio
    Federal University of Uberlandia, Uberlandia, Brazil.
    Chronic stress induces a hyporeactivity of the autonomic nervous system in response to acute mental stressor and impairs cognitive performance in business executives2015In: PLoS ONE, Vol. 10, no 3, article id e0119025Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examined the incidence of chronic stress in business executives (109 subjects: 75 male and 34 female) and its relationship with cortisol levels, cognitive performance, and autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity after an acute mental stressor. Blood samples were collected from the subjects to measure cortisol concentration. After the sample collection, the subjects completed the Lipp Inventory of Stress Symptoms for Adults and the Stroop Color-Word Test to evaluate stress and cognitive performance levels, respectively. Saliva samples were collected prior to, immediately after, and five minutes after the test. The results revealed that 90.1% of the stressed subjects experienced stress phases that are considered chronic stress. At rest, the subjects with chronic stress showed higher cortisol levels, and no gender differences were observed. No differences were found between the stressed and non-stressed subjects regarding salivary amylase activity prior to test. Chronic stress also impaired performance on the Stroop test, which revealed higher rates of error and longer reaction times in the incongruent stimulus task independently of gender. For the congruent stimulus task of the Stroop test, the stressed males presented a higher rate of errors than the non-stressed males and a longer reaction time than the stressed females. After the acute mental stressor, the non-stressed male group showed an increase in salivary alpha-amylase activity, which returned to the initial values five minutes after the test; this ANS reactivity was not observed in the chronically stressed male subjects. The ANS responses of the non-stressed vs stressed female groups were not different prior to or after the Stroop test. This study is the first to demonstrate a blunted reactivity of the ANS when male subjects with chronic psychological stress were subjected to an acute mental stressor, and this change could contribute to impairments in cognitive performance.

  • 21.
    Ekstrand, Per
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Genus- och mångfaldsperspektiv i hälso- och sjukvården2010In: Vårdpedagogiska utmaningar / [ed] Sonia Bentling & Bosse Jonsson, Stockholm: Liber, 2010, p. 156-185Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Ekstrand, Per
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för vård- och folkhälsovetenskap, Västerås .
    Homosociala relationer bland män i vårdyrken: formandet av yrkesidentitet som sjuksköterska.2004Report (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Ekstrand, Per
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    "Tarzan och Jane": Hur män som sjuksköterskor formar sin identitet2005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The study focuses on locally situated interactions between men and women and among men. The main focus is on how men in nursing practice constitute their identities. The aim of the disserta-tion is to understand the meaning of gender, particularly the constitution of masculinities, in the formation of identity for men in nursing.

    Theoretical points of departure were post-structuralist and masculinity theories. Within the theoretical framework, processes of gender should be seen as activities that are relational and integrated in ongoing organisational life, in this case, in the nursing context.

    My methodological approach was qualitative, based on ethnography. Techniques used for data collection were following observations and interviews. I followed seven men in their daily work in two hospital environments, one emergency department and a department in elder care (sheltered housing).

    The gender order was maintained by rewards to medical and technical knowledge and skills. The phenomenon of”gender dizziness” was manifested through interaction and became visible through the men’s practice. Different positions of masculinities co-operated and the physicality of the body was important in performing masculinities. Hegemonic positions of masculinities are maintained and other positions are subordinated. Homosociality creates influence and power in social relations, and it was obvious that the informants in these organisations found ways to keep together, in spite of their different positions in the organisation.

    Some of the informants cross over the border and perform ideals that are not traditional for men in nursing. In the nursing environment these men’s identities show a caring attitude. The stereotype, connected to heteronormative ways of thinking, plays an important role for men in constructing their identities in the nursing context. A central conclusion in this study is that sexuality order put strong pressure on identity formation and the construction of masculinities for men in nursing.

  • 24.
    Ekstrand, Per
    et al.
    Akademin för Hälsa, Vård och Välfärd, Mälardalens högskola.
    Kumpula, Esa
    Om sportens betydelse för manliga relationer i vården2010In: Norma, ISSN 1890-2138, E-ISSN 1890-2146, ISSN 1890-2138, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 60-73Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Eriksson, Catrin
    et al.
    Sophiahemmet University.
    Skinstad, Matilda
    Sophiahemmet University.
    Georgsson, Susanne
    The Swedish Red Cross University College. Karolinska Institutet.
    Carlsson, Tommy
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Health Sciences. Sophiahemmet University / Uppsala University.
    Quality of websites about long-acting reversible contraception: a descriptive cross-sectional study2019In: Reproductive Health, ISSN 1742-4755, E-ISSN 1742-4755, Vol. 16, no 1, article id 172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Today, there are various short- and long-acting contraceptive alternatives available for those who wish to prevent unintended pregnancy. Long-acting reversible contraception are considered effective methods with a high user satisfaction. High-quality information about contraception is essential in order to empower individuals to reach informed decisions based on sufficient knowledge. Use of the Web for information about contraception is widespread, and there is a risk that those who use it for this purpose could come in contact with sources of low quality.

    OBJECTIVE: The overarching aim was to investigate the quality of websites about long-acting reversible contraception.

    METHODS: Swedish client-oriented websites were identified through searches in Google (n = 46 included websites). Reliability and information about long-acting reversible contraceptive choices were assessed by two assessors with the DISCERN instrument, transparency was analyzed with the Journal of the American Medical Association benchmarks, completeness was assessed with inductive content analysis and readability was analyzed with Readability Index.

    RESULTS: The mean DISCERN was 44.1/80 (SD 7.7) for total score, 19.7/40 (SD 3.7) for reliability, 22.1/35 (SD 4.1) for information about long-acting reversible contraceptive choices, and 2.3/5 (SD 1.1) for overall quality. A majority of the included websites had low quality with regard to what sources were used to compile the information (n = 41/46, 89%), when the information was produced (n = 40/46, 87%), and if it provided additional sources of support and information (n = 30/46, 65%). Less than half of the websites adhered to any of the JAMA benchmarks. We identified 23 categories of comprehensiveness. The most frequent was contraceptive mechanism (n = 39/46, 85%) and the least frequent was when contraception may be initiated following an abortion (n = 3/46, 7%). The mean Readability Index was 42.5 (SD 6.3, Range 29-55) indicating moderate to difficult readability levels, corresponding to a grade level of 9.

    CONCLUSIONS: The quality of client-oriented websites about long-acting reversible contraception is poor. There is an undeniable need to support and guide laypersons that intend to use web-based sources about contraceptive alternatives, so that they may reach informed decisions based on sufficient knowledge.

  • 26.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Institute of Health Care Pedagogics Institutionen för vårdpedagogik, University of Gothenburg.
    Den diplomatiska punkten: maskulinitet som kroppsligt identitetsskapande projekt i svensk sjuksköterskeutbildning2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 27. Eriksson, Henrik
    Kontrasternas Retorik -annanhet, undfallenhet, manlighet2004In: Retorikdagen 22 april. Södertörns Högskola., 2004Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 28.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd.
    Om kulturens manlighetsdressyr1999In: Locus, ISSN 1100-3197, no 3, p. 57-60Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för vård- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Skutt, Skalman and Bamse: Conformity and gender vertigo in the educational system2004In: Karolinska institutet's 7TH Educational Congress, Stockholm, Mars 24, 2004: Programme and abstracts, Stockholm: Karolinska institutet , 2004, p. 45-Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 30.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences.
    St: Olaf Och Liberal arts: reflektioner över en stipendievistelse i Minnesota2006Report (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Velourmannen fortsätter att spöka2005In: Tidningen Alba, ISSN 1403-5448, no 3Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 32.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    et al.
    The Swedish Red Cross University College.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Magnus
    Dalarna Högskola.
    Pringle, Keith
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Virtual Invisible Men: Privacy and invisibility as forms of privilege in online venues for fathers during early parenthood2014In: Culture, Society and Masculinities, ISSN 1941-5583, E-ISSN 1941-5591, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 52-68Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33. Eriksson, S
    et al.
    Hedman, Ann-Marie
    Vad är handledning?: en kvalitativ studie av sjuksköterskestuderandes uppfattningar av handledning i praktisk utbildning1992Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
  • 34.
    Frans, Örjan
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Åhs, Jill
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Bihre, Eva
    Uppsala universitet.
    Åhs, Fredrik
    Uppsala universitet, Karolinska Institutet.
    Distance to threat and risk of acute and posttraumatic stress disorder following bank robbery: A longitudinal study2018In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 267, p. 461-466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Identifying pathways through which environmental risk factors influence PTSD is important for understanding PTSD etiology. Here, we hypothesized that the physical proximity to threat influences PTSD risk by increasing ASD following trauma. One hundred six bank employees who had experienced a bank robbery participated in the study. A longitudinal design assessing ASD at day 2 and PTSD at day 30 was used to test the hypothesis. Participants also indicated their location in the bank at the time of the robbery. ASD was identified in 40 (38%) and PTSD in 16 (15%) of the robbery victims. Distance to the robber had a strong effect on ASD (OR 3.51, 95% CI 1.94-6.34) and a somewhat lesser effect on PTSD (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.04-4.46), indicating that the effect of proximity to threat on PTSD 1 month following trauma could be mediated by its effect on ASD 2 days following trauma. Using structural equation modeling, we confirmed that the effect of distance on PTSD was fully mediated by ASD. These findings suggest that proximity to threat may increase PTSD risk by enhancing the acute stress response following trauma.

  • 35.
    Hallberg, David
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Lifelong learning: The social impact of digital villages as community resource centres on disadvantaged women2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this research was to enhance the understanding of what affects the social impact of ICT in lifelong learning on disadvantaged women.

    In contributing to the field of social informatics, this research employs behavioural theories as strategy and analytic possibilities. This research mainly used the Kenyan digital villages as CRCs as settings but did also look beyond such establishments to provide a more solid picture. The studies were located in Kenya with complementary studies in Bolivia, Cameroon, Sri Lanka, and Sweden. The main strategies and methods used were case study, comparative education approaches, and observations and interviewing techniques.

    The findings suggest that ICT and CRCs have the potential to support disadvantaged women and their lifelong learning. However, the positive social impacts are limited because the arrangement of them generally does not favour vernacular languages, illiterate users, female owners and users, or non-students. In general, the use of ICT was sometimes perceived as forced, which is both a barrier and a stressor in the use of ICT in lifelong learning. It also emerged from the comparative studies that discussions among the participants in the CRCs largely covered issues in respect to 1) family and reproduction and 2) self-esteem, i.e. what settles the matter of the social impact of ICT in lifelong learning depends on change attitude among men and women. With minimal if not zero self-esteem a change that would make the difference or break a woman’s “legendary status quo” in order for a woman to feel that she can reach her goal or ambitions in lifelong learning would be difficult. Hence the lack of self-esteem is a stressor in itself.

    This research is valuable for stakeholders delving into issues of development and learning using ICTs, not only in Kenya but in a broader, global perspective.

  • 36.
    Hallberg, David
    KTH, Data- och systemvetenskap, DSV.
    Socioculture and cognitivist perspectives on language and communication barriers in learning2009In: Proceedings of World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, ISSN 2010-376X, E-ISSN 2070-3740, Vol. 36, no 3(12), p. 172-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is believed that major account on language diversity must be taken in learning, and especially in learning using ICT. This paper's objective is to exhibit language and communication barriers in learning, to approach the topic from socioculture and cognitivist perspectives, and to give exploratory solutions of handling such barriers. The review is mainly conducted by approaching the journal Computers & Education, but also an initially broad search was conducted. The results show that not much attention is paid on language and communication barriers in an immediate relation to learning using ICT. The results shows, inter alia, that language and communication barriers are caused because of not enough account is taken on both the individual's background and the technology.

  • 37.
    Hallberg, David
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Public Health and Medicine.
    Telecentros en Bolivia: La Atención en las Mujeres2016In: Revista Caracteres, ISSN 2254-4496, E-ISSN 2254-4496, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 145-167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A telecentre provides communities with limited resources the opportunity to acquire electronic information that is useful for learning and education, societal information, or be it business. The aim of this study was to highlight the importance of the users of telecentres - especially the women - to ensure socially sustainable telecentres. As the main method, we rely on ethnographic field. Findings suggest that most users are students and women. Carrying out further field work will allow monitoring of these women to see if they can motivate other women to start going to the telecentres, and if this behavior of women reflects changes in the traditional model of gender.

  • 38.
    Hallberg, David
    et al.
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Public Health and Medicine. Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University.
    Hansson, Henrik
    Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University.
    Nilsson, Anders G.
    Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University.
    Immigrant Women's Reasoning and Use of Information and Communications Technology in Lifelong Learning2016In: Seminar.net: Media, technology and lifelong learning, ISSN 1504-4831, E-ISSN 1504-4831, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 66-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the reasoning and use of information and communications technology (ICT) in lifelong learning by immigrant women. Data were collected from semi-structured and unstructured interviews. The study was carried out primarily in a school environment, which also makes it possible to draw conclusions about the connection between learning in and outside school environments. Most participants experienced major differences in the use of and access to ICT after moving to their new country. Most women use and access ICT, even if not of their own volition. Providing a summary of some of the benefits and barriers that emerged, our study has shown that it is important to distinguish the way someone reasons about ICT and their actual use of it. No account was taken of cultural differences between the participants’ countries of origin. This study made it possible for the immigrant women to voice their experiences, knowledge, and feelings about their situations in school and in everyday life.

  • 39.
    Hallberg, David
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Hansson, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Nilsson, Anders G.
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Integration and lifelong learning: immigrant women's reasoning and use of information and technologies in lifelong learningArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Hallberg, David
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Kulecho, Mildred
    Kulecho, Ann
    Loreen, Okoth
    Case studies of Kenyan digital villages with a focus on women and girls2011In: Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa, ISSN 1998-1279, E-ISSN 2309-5814, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 255-273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present article refers to a case study on the Kenyan Government’s Digital Villages Project (DVP). The Kenyan Government, together with external stakeholders and private contractors, is increasing their ICT investments to provide the entire population with information and communication regardless of demographic factors. In the Kenyan context, digital villages are what normally other countries refer to as telecentres, i.e. a centre that provides services with regard to Internet and telecommunication. In this case, the digital villages also offer education, learning, and e-Government. The present study wants to learn whether DVP is accessible, and appropriate to women and girls in resource-poor environments and, thus, successful. The following questions guided the study: 1. Who are the users of Pasha Centres? 2. How and for what purposes are Pasha Centres used? 3. In what way do Pasha Centres consider local needs (e.g. education, literacy, job, and diversity)? 4. What do users and managers do to encourage female users? The study is built upon observations and interviews. The results show that male users generally believe that women have a lack of knowledge and understanding of ICT. The results also show that what is said by the government is not fully implemented at the local levels. The authors believe, despite this, that DVP has the potential to serve the population in vulnerable areas and that the government should continue focusing on similar projects.

  • 41.
    Hallberg, David
    et al.
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Public Health and Medicine.
    Olsson, Ulf
    Department of Computer and Systems Sciences (DSV), Stockholm University.
    Self-Regulated Learning in Students' Thesis Writing2017In: International Journal of Teaching & Education, ISSN 2336-2022, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 13-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to find answers to how self-regulated learning (SRL) and cooperation learning orientation correlate with study success. At DSV, a department of Stockholm University, a web based support system for students’ thesis writing referred to as SciPro was implemented. The system also allowed for statistics of thesis process. Through the SciPro system, we were able to retrieve students and supervisors; data were retrieved from 45 supervisors and 47 students with regard to their respective responsibilities in the thesis writing process. Vermunt’s instrument, Inventory of Learning Styles (ILS), was employed to measure students’ SRL. Overall, the relation between SRL and completed thesis was not as strong as expected.

  • 42.
    Hamada, Etsuko
    et al.
    Japanese Red Cross College of Nursing, Tokyo, Japan.
    Higashiura, Hiroshi
    Japanese Red Cross College of Nursing, Tokyo, Japan.
    Kawashima, Midori
    Japanese Red Cross College of Nursing, Tokyo, Japan.
    Takei, Asako
    Japanese Red Cross College of Nursing, Tokyo, Japan.
    Sasaki, Ikumi
    Japanese Red Cross College of Nursing, Tokyo, Japan.
    Honjo, Keiko
    Japanese Red Cross College of Nursing, Tokyo, Japan.
    Kawahara, Yukari
    Japanese Red Cross College of Nursing, Tokyo, Japan.
    Yoshida, Mitsuko
    Japanese Red Cross College of Nursing, Tokyo, Japan.
    Gardulf, Ann
    Red Cross University College of Nursing. Karolinska Institutet.
    Nilsson, Jan
    Red Cross University College of Nursing. Karlstad University.
    Okamoto, Nahoko
    Japanese Red Cross College of Nursing, Tokyo, Japan.
    Red Cross/Red Crescent & Nursing Education: A research toward establishing international networking2010Report (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Holmgren, Jessica
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Postkoloniala blickar på konstruktionen av ”den Andre"2014In: Vårdvetenskap och postmodernitet: en introduktion / [ed] Henrik Eriksson, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2014, 1, p. 113-144Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Holmgren, Jessica
    et al.
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Health Sciences.
    Kraft, Mia
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Health Sciences.
    A global nursing framework in the Swedish Red Cross undergraduate nursing program2018In: Nordic journal of nursing research, ISSN 2057-1585, E-ISSN 2057-1593, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 167-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alongside a globalized world and a demographic shift in Sweden, future nurses must provide globally significant nursing care based on relevant knowledges and skills. To contribute to the global nursing discourse, this article aims to describe the process undertaken in developing and implementing a global nursing approach and curriculum in the Swedish Red Cross undergraduate nursing program. A comprehensive process of educational change was carried out, targeting both faculty and students with various academic activities. The new global-oriented curriculum was evaluated positively by nursing students, and a definition of global nursing was disseminated among educators. Nursing students at the Swedish Red Cross University College are now encouraged to advocate for vulnerable persons in need of healthcare services and to counteract inequalities and social injustice in sustainable ways. It is suggested that a global nursing framework is what is required when educating nurses to meet tomorrow’s nursing care needs.

  • 45.
    Hooper, Michael
    et al.
    Graduate School of Design , Harvard University , Cambridge, MA , USA.
    Cadstedt, Jenny
    Red Cross University College of Nursing.
    Moving Beyond ‘Community’ Participation: Perceptions of Renting and the Dynamics of Participation Around Urban Development in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania2014In: International Planning Studies, ISSN 1356-3475, E-ISSN 1469-9265, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 25-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper employs extensive interviews to examine the ways in which perceptions of renting — on the part of renters, owners and other key actors in the development process — influenced the dynamics of participation around two recent urban development projects in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The study responds to concerns that participatory planning too frequently treats communities as homogenous and overlooks barriers to participation faced by marginalized groups, such as renters. The results show that renters were unwilling and often unable to participate due to perceptions, hled by themselves and by others, of renter transience and inconsequentiality. These perceptions led to a cycle of non-participation in which policymakers gave renters' needs little attention in plans and renters were disinclined to participate in mobilization. The results suggest that barriers to renter participation could be reduced if their concerns were proactively given more weight in urban development plans.

  • 46.
    Hägg Martinell, Ann
    et al.
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Health Sciences.
    Hult, Håkan
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Henriksson, Peter
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Kiessling, Anna
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Possibilities for interprofessional learning at a Swedish acute healthcare ward not dedicated to interprofessional education: an ethnographic study2019In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 9, no 7, article id e027590Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Almost all healthcare today is team-based in collaboration over professional borders, and numerous students have work-based learning in such contexts. However, interprofessional learning (IPL) in clinical settings has mostly been systematically explored in specially designed contexts dedicated to interprofessional education (IPE). This study aimed to explore the possibilities for IPL activities, and if or how they occur, in an acute ward context not dedicated to IPE.

    DESIGN AND SETTING: Between 2011 and 2013 ethnographic observations were performed of medical and nursing students' interactions and IPL during early clerkship at an acute internal medicine ward in Sweden. Field notes were taken and analysed based on the framework of IPE: learning with, from and about.

    PARTICIPANTS: 21 medical, 4 nursing students and 30 supervisors participated.

    RESULTS: Learning with-there were no organised IPE activities. Instead, medical and nursing students learnt in parallel. However, students interacted with staff members from other professions. Learning from-interprofessional supervision was frequent. Interprofessional supervision of nursing students by doctors focused on theoretical questions and answers, while interprofessional supervision of medical students by nurses focused on the performance of technical skills. Learning about-students were observed to actively observe interactions between staff and learnt how staff conducted different tasks.

    CONCLUSION: This study shows that there were plenty of possibilities for IPL activities, but the potential was not fully utilised or facilitated. Serendipitous IPL activities differed between observed medical and nursing students. Although interprofessional supervision was fairly frequent, students were not learning with, from or about each other over professional borders.

  • 47.
    Jønland Højsgaard, Trine
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Health Sciences. Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Reframed Identity: Red Cross nurses' identity formation between 1945 and 19772019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim is to explore the construction of nurse identity at the Red Cross Nursing School (RCNS) in Sweden, between 1945 and 1977, when nursing became part of the system of higher education in Sweden. Occupational identity is understood as a construct both of social learning and of a self-image. The empirical data consist of documents from the Red Cross Archive concerning the training of nurses and of interviews with nurses trained during the studied period. A hermeneutical interpretative method has been used. The result showed that the period studied was divided into two different phases. The first phase between 1945 and the end of the 1960s, is called the post war phase. The following phase, from the 1960s until 1977, is called the reform friendly phase. RCNS was in the post war phase a kind of total institution, based on a particular belonging to a very special and highly respected social community, reinforced by the student nurses being dressed in the same uniform and living under the same strong authority in a quite homogeneous group. The training was an introduction to a life-long membership in the total Red Cross Nurse community. This community was in the reform friendly phase challenged by diverse external changes in society. Within a period of approximately ten years, much came to be questioned, and many previously important customs and habits were abandoned. The total community started to dilute, and the lives of students changed gradually passing to a social arrangement where they slept, lived and worked in different places with different people under different authorities. The total community was impossible to modernise, built as it was on pre-modern values and hierarchies. This led to a breakdown of the traditional Red Cross nurse identity based on honour, where they were first of all Red Cross sisters. While the uniform occupational identity was challenged, more and more nurses combined family and work. This meant that their self-identities became more multidimensional. The key to our understanding of the Red Cross nursing education and the shift that took place in the late 1960s is thus to be found in the transformation of the internal collective, where nurses no longer lived and 2 learnt the traditional Red Cross codes of honour and conduct. Gradually, nurse training was integrated into higher education. This was a major reframing of the occupational identity formation, from specially selected Red Cross nurse students being trained into a total community of experienced Red Cross nurses, to an academic education of professional nurses.

  • 48.
    Kalén, Susanne
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lachmann, Hanna
    Karolinska Institutet / Sophiahemmet Högskola.
    Varttinen, Maria
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Möller, Riitta
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Bexelius, Tomas S
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ponzer, Sari
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Medical students' experiences of their own professional development during three clinical terms: a prospective follow-up study2017In: BMC Medical Education, ISSN 1472-6920, E-ISSN 1472-6920, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: A modern competency-based medical education is well implemented globally, but less is known about how the included learning activities contribute to medical students' professional development. The aim of this study was to explore Swedish medical students' perceptions of the offered learning activities and their experiences of how these activities were connected to their professional development as defined by the CanMEDS framework.

    METHODS: A prospective mixed method questionnaire study during three terms (internal medicine, scientific project, and surgery) in which data were collected by using contextual activity sampling system, i.e., the students were sent a questionnaire via their mobile phones every third week. All 136 medical students in the 6th of 11 terms in the autumn of 2012 were invited to participate. Seventy-four students (54%) filled in all of the required questionnaires (4 per term) for inclusion, the total number of questionnaires being 1335. The questionnaires focused on the students' experiences of learning activities, especially in relation to the CanMEDS Roles, collaboration with others and emotions (positive, negative, optimal experiences, i.e., "flow") related to the studies. The quantitative data was analysed statistically and, for the open-ended questions, manifest inductive content analysis was used.

    RESULTS: Three of the CanMEDs Roles, Medical Expert, Scholar, and Communicator, were most frequently reported while the four others, e.g., the role Health Advocate, were less common. Collaboration with students from other professions was most usual during the 8th term. Positive emotions and experience of "flow" were most often reported during clinical learning activities while the scientific project term was connected with more negative emotions.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that it is possible, even during clinical courses, to visualise the different areas of professional competence defined in the curriculum and connect these competences to the actual learning activities. Students halfway through their medical education considered the most important learning activities for their professional development to be connected with the Roles of Medical Expert, Scholar, and Communicator. Given that each of the CanMEDS Roles is at least moderately important during undergraduate medical education, the entire spectrum of the Roles should be emphasised and developed during the clinical years.

  • 49.
    Lachmann, Hanna
    Sophiahemmet Högskola.
    Interprofessionellt lärande i verksamhetsförlagd utbildning2017In: Vårdpedagogik: vårdens kärnkompetenser från ett pedagogiskt perspektiv / [ed] Margret Lepp & Janeth Leksell, Stockholm: Liber, 2017, 1, p. 218-234Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Lachmann, Hanna
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet / Sophiahemmet Högskola.
    Fossum, Bjöörn
    Sophiahemmet Högskola / Karolinska Institutet.
    Johansson, Unn-Britt
    Karolinska Institutet / Sophiahemmet Högskola.
    Karlgren, Klas
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ponzer, Sari
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Promoting reflection by using contextual activity sampling: a study on students' interprofessional learning2014In: Journal of Interprofessional Care, ISSN 1356-1820, E-ISSN 1469-9567, Vol. 28, no 5, p. 400-406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Students' engagement and reflection on learning activities are important during interprofessional clinical practice. The contextual activity sampling system (CASS) is a methodology designed for collecting data on experiences of ongoing activities by frequent distribution of questionnaires via mobile phones. The aim of this study was to investigate if the use of the CASS methodology affected students' experiences of their learning activities, readiness for interprofessional learning, academic emotions and experiences of interprofessional team collaboration. Student teams, consisting of 33 students in total from four different healthcare programs, were randomized into an intervention group that used CASS or into a control group that did not use CASS. Both quantitative (questionnaires) and qualitative (interviews) data were collected. The results showed that students in the intervention group rated teamwork and collaboration significantly higher after than before the course, which was not the case in the control group. On the other hand, the control group reported experiencing more stress than the intervention group. The qualitative data showed that CASS seemed to support reflection and also have a positive impact on students' experiences of ongoing learning activities and interprofessional collaboration. In conclusion, the CASS methodology provides support for students in their understanding of interprofessional teamwork.

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