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  • 1.
    Díaz, Miguel Mauricio
    Federal University of Uberlandia, Uberlandia, Brazil.
    Chronic stress induces a hyporeactivity of the autonomic nervous system in response to acute mental stressor and impairs cognitive performance in business executives2015In: PLoS ONE, Vol. 10, no 3, article id e0119025Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examined the incidence of chronic stress in business executives (109 subjects: 75 male and 34 female) and its relationship with cortisol levels, cognitive performance, and autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity after an acute mental stressor. Blood samples were collected from the subjects to measure cortisol concentration. After the sample collection, the subjects completed the Lipp Inventory of Stress Symptoms for Adults and the Stroop Color-Word Test to evaluate stress and cognitive performance levels, respectively. Saliva samples were collected prior to, immediately after, and five minutes after the test. The results revealed that 90.1% of the stressed subjects experienced stress phases that are considered chronic stress. At rest, the subjects with chronic stress showed higher cortisol levels, and no gender differences were observed. No differences were found between the stressed and non-stressed subjects regarding salivary amylase activity prior to test. Chronic stress also impaired performance on the Stroop test, which revealed higher rates of error and longer reaction times in the incongruent stimulus task independently of gender. For the congruent stimulus task of the Stroop test, the stressed males presented a higher rate of errors than the non-stressed males and a longer reaction time than the stressed females. After the acute mental stressor, the non-stressed male group showed an increase in salivary alpha-amylase activity, which returned to the initial values five minutes after the test; this ANS reactivity was not observed in the chronically stressed male subjects. The ANS responses of the non-stressed vs stressed female groups were not different prior to or after the Stroop test. This study is the first to demonstrate a blunted reactivity of the ANS when male subjects with chronic psychological stress were subjected to an acute mental stressor, and this change could contribute to impairments in cognitive performance.

  • 2.
    Frans, Örjan
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Åhs, Jill
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Bihre, Eva
    Uppsala universitet.
    Åhs, Fredrik
    Uppsala universitet, Karolinska Institutet.
    Distance to threat and risk of acute and posttraumatic stress disorder following bank robbery: A longitudinal study2018In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 267, p. 461-466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Identifying pathways through which environmental risk factors influence PTSD is important for understanding PTSD etiology. Here, we hypothesized that the physical proximity to threat influences PTSD risk by increasing ASD following trauma. One hundred six bank employees who had experienced a bank robbery participated in the study. A longitudinal design assessing ASD at day 2 and PTSD at day 30 was used to test the hypothesis. Participants also indicated their location in the bank at the time of the robbery. ASD was identified in 40 (38%) and PTSD in 16 (15%) of the robbery victims. Distance to the robber had a strong effect on ASD (OR 3.51, 95% CI 1.94-6.34) and a somewhat lesser effect on PTSD (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.04-4.46), indicating that the effect of proximity to threat on PTSD 1 month following trauma could be mediated by its effect on ASD 2 days following trauma. Using structural equation modeling, we confirmed that the effect of distance on PTSD was fully mediated by ASD. These findings suggest that proximity to threat may increase PTSD risk by enhancing the acute stress response following trauma.

  • 3. Saboonchi, Fredrik
    Den skapande människans tolerans2012In: Tolerera: en antologi om intolerans och tolerans ur ett psykologiskt perspektiv / [ed] Jon Brunberg, Stockholm: Forum för levande historia , 2012, p. 17-37Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 4.
    Saboonchi, Fredrik
    Stockholms universitet, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Perfectionsim: Conceptual, Emotional, Psychopathological, and Health-Related Implications2000Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 5.
    von Strauss, Eva
    et al.
    Karolinska instiutet.
    Backman, L
    Herlitz, A
    Fastbom, J
    Winblad, B
    Fratiglioni, L
    Physical and mental functioning in a population over 60 years of age. Data from the SNAC-Kungsholmen Project2005In: International psychogeriatrics, ISSN 1041-6102, E-ISSN 1741-203X, Vol. 17, no supl 2, p. 213-214Article in journal (Refereed)
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