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  • 1.
    Hallberg, David
    KTH, Data- och systemvetenskap, DSV.
    Socioculture and cognitivist perspectives on language and communication barriers in learning2009In: Proceedings of World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, ISSN 2010-376X, E-ISSN 2070-3740, Vol. 36, no 3(12), p. 172-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is believed that major account on language diversity must be taken in learning, and especially in learning using ICT. This paper's objective is to exhibit language and communication barriers in learning, to approach the topic from socioculture and cognitivist perspectives, and to give exploratory solutions of handling such barriers. The review is mainly conducted by approaching the journal Computers & Education, but also an initially broad search was conducted. The results show that not much attention is paid on language and communication barriers in an immediate relation to learning using ICT. The results shows, inter alia, that language and communication barriers are caused because of not enough account is taken on both the individual's background and the technology.

  • 2.
    Hallberg, David
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Public Health and Medicine.
    Telecentros en Bolivia: La Atención en las Mujeres2016In: Revista Caracteres, ISSN 2254-4496, E-ISSN 2254-4496, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 145-167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A telecentre provides communities with limited resources the opportunity to acquire electronic information that is useful for learning and education, societal information, or be it business. The aim of this study was to highlight the importance of the users of telecentres - especially the women - to ensure socially sustainable telecentres. As the main method, we rely on ethnographic field. Findings suggest that most users are students and women. Carrying out further field work will allow monitoring of these women to see if they can motivate other women to start going to the telecentres, and if this behavior of women reflects changes in the traditional model of gender.

  • 3.
    Hallberg, David
    et al.
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Public Health and Medicine.
    Olsson, Ulf
    Department of Computer and Systems Sciences (DSV), Stockholm University.
    Self-Regulated Learning in Students' Thesis Writing2017In: International Journal of Teaching & Education, ISSN 2336-2022, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 13-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to find answers to how self-regulated learning (SRL) and cooperation learning orientation correlate with study success. At DSV, a department of Stockholm University, a web based support system for students’ thesis writing referred to as SciPro was implemented. The system also allowed for statistics of thesis process. Through the SciPro system, we were able to retrieve students and supervisors; data were retrieved from 45 supervisors and 47 students with regard to their respective responsibilities in the thesis writing process. Vermunt’s instrument, Inventory of Learning Styles (ILS), was employed to measure students’ SRL. Overall, the relation between SRL and completed thesis was not as strong as expected.

  • 4.
    Hägg Martinell, Ann
    et al.
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Health Sciences.
    Hult, Håkan
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Henriksson, Peter
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Kiessling, Anna
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Possibilities for interprofessional learning at a Swedish acute healthcare ward not dedicated to interprofessional education: an ethnographic study2019In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 9, no 7, article id e027590Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Almost all healthcare today is team-based in collaboration over professional borders, and numerous students have work-based learning in such contexts. However, interprofessional learning (IPL) in clinical settings has mostly been systematically explored in specially designed contexts dedicated to interprofessional education (IPE). This study aimed to explore the possibilities for IPL activities, and if or how they occur, in an acute ward context not dedicated to IPE.

    DESIGN AND SETTING: Between 2011 and 2013 ethnographic observations were performed of medical and nursing students' interactions and IPL during early clerkship at an acute internal medicine ward in Sweden. Field notes were taken and analysed based on the framework of IPE: learning with, from and about.

    PARTICIPANTS: 21 medical, 4 nursing students and 30 supervisors participated.

    RESULTS: Learning with-there were no organised IPE activities. Instead, medical and nursing students learnt in parallel. However, students interacted with staff members from other professions. Learning from-interprofessional supervision was frequent. Interprofessional supervision of nursing students by doctors focused on theoretical questions and answers, while interprofessional supervision of medical students by nurses focused on the performance of technical skills. Learning about-students were observed to actively observe interactions between staff and learnt how staff conducted different tasks.

    CONCLUSION: This study shows that there were plenty of possibilities for IPL activities, but the potential was not fully utilised or facilitated. Serendipitous IPL activities differed between observed medical and nursing students. Although interprofessional supervision was fairly frequent, students were not learning with, from or about each other over professional borders.

  • 5.
    Kalén, Susanne
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lachmann, Hanna
    Karolinska Institutet / Sophiahemmet Högskola.
    Varttinen, Maria
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Möller, Riitta
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Bexelius, Tomas S
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ponzer, Sari
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Medical students' experiences of their own professional development during three clinical terms: a prospective follow-up study2017In: BMC Medical Education, ISSN 1472-6920, E-ISSN 1472-6920, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: A modern competency-based medical education is well implemented globally, but less is known about how the included learning activities contribute to medical students' professional development. The aim of this study was to explore Swedish medical students' perceptions of the offered learning activities and their experiences of how these activities were connected to their professional development as defined by the CanMEDS framework.

    METHODS: A prospective mixed method questionnaire study during three terms (internal medicine, scientific project, and surgery) in which data were collected by using contextual activity sampling system, i.e., the students were sent a questionnaire via their mobile phones every third week. All 136 medical students in the 6th of 11 terms in the autumn of 2012 were invited to participate. Seventy-four students (54%) filled in all of the required questionnaires (4 per term) for inclusion, the total number of questionnaires being 1335. The questionnaires focused on the students' experiences of learning activities, especially in relation to the CanMEDS Roles, collaboration with others and emotions (positive, negative, optimal experiences, i.e., "flow") related to the studies. The quantitative data was analysed statistically and, for the open-ended questions, manifest inductive content analysis was used.

    RESULTS: Three of the CanMEDs Roles, Medical Expert, Scholar, and Communicator, were most frequently reported while the four others, e.g., the role Health Advocate, were less common. Collaboration with students from other professions was most usual during the 8th term. Positive emotions and experience of "flow" were most often reported during clinical learning activities while the scientific project term was connected with more negative emotions.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that it is possible, even during clinical courses, to visualise the different areas of professional competence defined in the curriculum and connect these competences to the actual learning activities. Students halfway through their medical education considered the most important learning activities for their professional development to be connected with the Roles of Medical Expert, Scholar, and Communicator. Given that each of the CanMEDS Roles is at least moderately important during undergraduate medical education, the entire spectrum of the Roles should be emphasised and developed during the clinical years.

  • 6.
    Lachmann, Hanna
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet / Sophiahemmet Högskola.
    Fossum, Bjöörn
    Sophiahemmet Högskola / Karolinska Institutet.
    Johansson, Unn-Britt
    Karolinska Institutet / Sophiahemmet Högskola.
    Karlgren, Klas
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ponzer, Sari
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Promoting reflection by using contextual activity sampling: a study on students' interprofessional learning2014In: Journal of Interprofessional Care, ISSN 1356-1820, E-ISSN 1469-9567, Vol. 28, no 5, p. 400-406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Students' engagement and reflection on learning activities are important during interprofessional clinical practice. The contextual activity sampling system (CASS) is a methodology designed for collecting data on experiences of ongoing activities by frequent distribution of questionnaires via mobile phones. The aim of this study was to investigate if the use of the CASS methodology affected students' experiences of their learning activities, readiness for interprofessional learning, academic emotions and experiences of interprofessional team collaboration. Student teams, consisting of 33 students in total from four different healthcare programs, were randomized into an intervention group that used CASS or into a control group that did not use CASS. Both quantitative (questionnaires) and qualitative (interviews) data were collected. The results showed that students in the intervention group rated teamwork and collaboration significantly higher after than before the course, which was not the case in the control group. On the other hand, the control group reported experiencing more stress than the intervention group. The qualitative data showed that CASS seemed to support reflection and also have a positive impact on students' experiences of ongoing learning activities and interprofessional collaboration. In conclusion, the CASS methodology provides support for students in their understanding of interprofessional teamwork.

  • 7.
    Manninen, Katri
    et al.
    Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet.
    Scheja, Max
    Department of Education, Faculty of Social Science, Stockholm University.
    Welin Henriksson, Elisabet
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet.
    Silén, Charlotte
    Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet.
    Self-centeredness or patient-centeredness–final year nursing students’ experiences of learning at a clinical education ward2013In: Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, ISSN 1925-4040, E-ISSN 1925-4059, Vol. 3, no 12, p. 187-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Different types of clinical education wards with the aim of facilitating transition from student to professional have been established giving students more autonomy and responsibility. Studies report positive effects but deeper understanding concerning how clinical education wards can contribute to learning for students nearing graduation is needed.

    Aim: To explore final year nursing students’ experiences of learning when they are supported to take care of patients independently.

    Methods: The context for this study was a clinical education ward for nursing students at a university hospital in Sweden. Individual and group interviews with 18 students of 29 eligible students were conducted after their clinical practice. The data was analyzed using qualitative content analysis with a focus on students’ experiences of their encounters with patients, supervisors, students and other professionals.

    Results: The two main themes appeared as important aspects influencing final year students’ learning, uncertainty as a threshold and experiencing engagement. Sub-themes characterizing uncertainty as a threshold were self-centeredness and ambivalence describing the patient from the perspective of performing nursing tasks. Sub-themes characterizing experiencing engagement were creating mutual relationship and professional development. Caring for patients with extensive need for nursing care helped the students to become patient-centered and overcome the threshold, experience engagement and authenticity in learning the profession.

    Conclusions: A clinical education ward may enhance the students’ experience of both external and internal authenticity enabling meaningful learning and professional development. It is important to acknowledge final year nursing students’ need for both challenges and support in the stressful transition from student to professional. Therefore, an explicit pedagogical framework based on patient-centered care and encouraging students to take responsibility should be used to help the students to overcome self-centeredness and to focus on the patients’ needs and nursing care.

  • 8.
    Manninen, Katri
    et al.
    Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet.
    Welin Henriksson, Elisabet
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet.
    Scheja, Max
    Faculty of Social Science, Department of Education, Stockholm University.
    Silén, Charlotte
    Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet.
    Authenticity in learning: nursing students’ experiences at a clinical education ward2013In: Health Education, ISSN 0965-4283, E-ISSN 1758-714X, Vol. 113, no 2, p. 132-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose– This study aims to explore and understand first year nursing students’ experiences of learning at a clinical education ward.

    Design/methodology/approach– The setting is a clinical education ward for nursing students at a department of infectious diseases. A qualitative study was carried out exploring students’ encounters with patients, supervisors, students and other health care professionals. A total of 19 students were interviewed. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis investigating both the manifest and the latent content.

    Findings– The most important components in students’ learning are mutual relationships and a sense of belongingness. A mutual relationship between the students and the patients is created and becomes the basis of students’ learning. Belongingness means the students’ experience of being for real a part of the team taking care of the patients.

    Research limitations/implications– The study, while linked to a particular teaching hospital, offers insights of more general nature by linking the findings to a theory of transformative learning.

    Originality/value– This study adds a deeper understanding of students’ perspectives of significant characteristics to take into account when organizing clinical practice in health care education. Being entrusted and supported by a team of supervisors to take care of patients at a clinical education ward early in the education program provides an experience of internal and external authenticity. The students learn from, with and through the patients, which contributes to meaningful learning, understanding nursing, and professional development.

  • 9.
    Manninen, Katri
    et al.
    Department of Learning, Karolinska Institutet, Informatics, Management and Ethics.
    Welin Henriksson, Elisabet
    Department of Neurobiology, Karolinska Institutet; Care Sciences and Society.
    Scheja, Max
    Department of Education, Stockholm University.
    Silén, Charlotte
    Department of Learning, Karolinska Institutet, Informatics, Management and Ethics.
    Patients' approaches to students' learning at a clinical education ward: an ethnographic study2014In: BMC Medical Education, ISSN 1472-6920, E-ISSN 1472-6920, Vol. 14, article id 131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: It is well known that patients' involvement in health care students' learning is essential and gives students opportunities to experience clinical reasoning and practice clinical skills when interacting with patients. Students encounter patients in different contexts throughout their education. However, looking across the research providing evidence about learning related to patient-student encounters reveals a lack of knowledge about the actual learning process that occurs in encounters between patients and students. The aim of this study was to explore patient-student encounters in relation to students' learning in a patient-centered health-care setting.

    METHODS: An ethnographic approach was used to study the encounters between patients and students. The setting was a clinical education ward for nursing students at a university hospital with eight beds. The study included 10 observations with 11 students and 10 patients. The observer followed one or two students taking care of one patient. During the fieldwork observational and reflective notes were taken. After each observation follow-up interviews were conducted with each patient and student separately. Data were analyzed using an ethnographic approach.

    RESULTS: The most striking results showed that patients took different approaches in the encounters with students. When the students managed to create a good atmosphere and a mutual relationship, the patients were active participants in the students' learning. If the students did not manage to create a good atmosphere, the relationship became one-way and the patients were passive participants, letting the students practice on their bodies but without engaging in a dialogue with the students.

    CONCLUSIONS: Patient-student encounters, at a clinical education ward with a patient-centred pedagogical framework, can develop into either a learning relationship or an attending relationship. A learning relationship is based on a mutual relationship between patients and students resulting in patients actively participating in students' learning and they both experience it as a joint action. An attending relationship is based on a one-way relationship between patients and students resulting in patients passively participating by letting students to practice on their bodies but without engaging in a learning dialogue with the students.

  • 10.
    Manninen, Katri
    et al.
    Karolinska University Hospital.
    Welin Henriksson, Elisabet
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Scheja, Max
    Stockholm University.
    Silén, Charlotte
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Supervisors’ pedagogical role at a clinical education ward: an ethnographic study2015In: BMC Nursing, ISSN 1472-6955, E-ISSN 1472-6955, Vol. 14, article id 55Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Muukkonen, H.
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Inkinen, M.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Kosonen, K.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Hakkarainen, K.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Vesikivi, P.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Lachmann, Hanna
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Karlgren, K.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Research on knowledge practices with the contextual activity sampling system2009In: CSCL'09 Proceedings of the 9th international conference on Computer supported collaborative learning: June 8-13, 2009, Rhodes, Greece :  Volume 1 / [ed] Claire O'Malley; Daniel Suthers; Peter Reimann; Angelique Dimitracopoulou, International Society of the Learning Sciences , 2009, p. 385-394Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Contextual Activity Sampling System (CASS) research methodology and the CASS-Query application have been developed for contextually tracking of activities with a mobile phone. The method relies on frequent sampling of participants' practices and affects during periods of intensive follow-up. Two research designs provide an account of the methodological development work and the possibilities offered by CASS. The first study followed five student-groups longitudinally to examine evolution of academic knowledge practices. The findings from the second year data-collection show that trialogical practices were considered challenging, but often generated optimal-flow experiences. The second study investigated interprofessional work during a clinical course. Based on this pilot study, it was concluded that the data collected about activities and experiences over time extend the understanding of students' practices beyond what can be acquired by post-course questionnaires and can help in development of the design of interprofessional education in medicine and healthcare.

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