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  • 1.
    Scheers Andersson, Elina
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Silventoinen, Karri
    Department of Social Research, Helsinki, Finland.
    Tynelius, Per
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Nohr, Ellen A
    University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Sørensen, Thorkild I A
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark / Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg Hospital, Copenhagen, The Capital Region, Denmark / Bristol University, Bristol, UK.
    Rasmussen, Finn
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Heritability of gestational weight gain--a Swedish register-based twin study2015In: Twin Research and Human Genetics, ISSN 1832-4274, E-ISSN 1839-2628, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 410-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gestational weight gain (GWG) is a complex trait involving intrauterine environmental, maternal environmental, and genetic factors. However, the extent to which these factors contribute to the total variation in GWG is unclear. We therefore examined the genetic and environmental influences on the variation in GWG in the first and second pregnancy in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twin mother-pairs. Further, we explored if any co-variance existed between factors influencing the variation in GWG of the mothers’ first and second pregnancies. By using Swedish nationwide record-linkage data, we identified 694 twin mother-pairs with complete data on their first pregnancy and 465 twin mother-pairs with complete data on their second pregnancy during 1982–2010. For a subanalysis, 143 twin mother-pairs had complete data on two consecutive pregnancies during the study period. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to assess the contribution of genetic, shared, and unique environmental factors to the variation in GWG. A bivariate Cholesky decomposition model was used for the subanalysis. We found that genetic factors explained 43% (95% CI: 36–51%) of the variation in GWG in the first pregnancy and 26% (95% CI: 16–36%) in the second pregnancy. The remaining variance was explained by unique environmental factors. Both overlapping and distinct genetic and unique environmental factors influenced GWG in the first and the second pregnancy. This study showed that GWG has a moderate heritability, suggesting that a large part of the variation in the trait can be explained by unique environmental factors.

  • 2.
    Scheers Andersson, Elina
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Silventoinen, Karri
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Tynelius, Per
    Karolinska Institutet / Stockholm County Council.
    Nohr, Ellen A
    University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Sørensen, Thorkild I A
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark / Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg Hospital, Copenhagen, The Capital Region, Denmark / Bristol University, Bristol, UK.
    Rasmussen, Finn
    Karolinska Institutet / Stockholm County Council.
    Total and Trimester-Specific Gestational Weight Gain and Offspring Birth and Early Childhood Weight: A Prospective Cohort Study on Monozygotic Twin Mothers and Their Offspring2016In: Twin Research and Human Genetics, ISSN 1832-4274, E-ISSN 1839-2628, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 367-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gestational weight gain (GWG) has in numerous studies been associated with offspring birth weight (BW) and childhood weight. However, these associations might be explained by genetic confounding as offspring inherit their mother's genetic potential to gain weight. Furthermore, little is known about whether particular periods of pregnancy could influence offspring body weight differently. We therefore aimed to explore total and trimester-specific effects of GWG in monozygotic (MZ) twin mother-pairs on their offspring's BW, weight at 1 year and body mass index (BMI) at 5 and 10 years. MZ twin mothers born 1962-1975 were identified in national Swedish registers, and data on exposure and outcome variables was collected from medical records. We analyzed associations within and between twin pairs. We had complete data on the mothers' GWG and offspring BW for 82 pairs. The results indicated that total, and possibly also second and third trimester GWG were associated with offspring BW within the twin pairs in the fully adjusted model (β = 0.08 z-score units, 95% CI: 0.001, 0.17; β = 1.32 z-score units, 95% CI: -0.29, 2.95; and β = 1.02 z-score units, 95% CI: -0.50, 2.54, respectively). Our findings, although statistically weak, suggested no associations between GWG and offspring weight or BMI during infancy or childhood. Our study suggests that total, and possibly also second and third trimester, GWG are associated with offspring BW when taking shared genetic and environmental factors within twin pairs into account. Larger family-based studies with long follow-up are needed to confirm our findings.

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