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  • 1.
    Amin, M. Ridwanul
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Helgesson, M.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Runeson, B.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Tinghög, Petter
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Health Sciences.
    Mehlum, L.
    National Centre for Suicide Research and Prevention, Oslo, Norway.
    Holmes, E.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Mittendorfer-Rutz, E.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    The risk of suicidal behaviour in refugees and other immigrants to Sweden2018In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 28, no Suppl. 4, p. 191-191Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Björkenstam, B.
    et al.
    University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA USA / Karolinska Institutet / Stockholms universitet.
    Tinghög, Petter
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Public Health and Medicine. Karolinska Institutet.
    Cochran, S.
    University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA USA.
    Andersson, G.
    University of California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Alexanderson, K.
    University of California, Los Angeles, USA / Karolinska Institutet.
    Bränström, R.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Is work disability more common among same-sex than different-sex married people?2016In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 26, no Suppl. 1, p. 305-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Burström, Kristina
    et al.
    Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Medical Management Centre, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Egmar, Ann-Charlotte
    Red Cross University College of Nursing.
    Lugnér, Anna
    Centre for Infectious Disease Control Netherlands (CIb), Epidemiology and Surveillance Unit (EPI), National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), The Netherlands.
    Eriksson, Margareta
    Department of Pediatrics, Sachs’ Children’s Hospital, Södersjukhuset AB, Stockholm.
    Svartengren, Magnus
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    A Swedish child-friendly pilot version of the EQ-5D instrument: the development process2011In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 171-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Revising existing health related-quality of life (HRQoL) instruments used among adults with the intention of making them child-friendly enables the collection of similar HRQoL data in children, adolescents and adults. The aim of this article is to describe and discuss the development process of a Swedish child-friendly pilot version of the EQ-5D instrument. 

    Methods: We modified the existing Swedish EQ-5D adult version to make it child-friendly. Within a multidisciplinary research group, we investigated linguistic and interpretation issues by performing face-to-face and group interviews with children and adolescents aged 6–17 years. 

    Results: The first modification of the adult language was to change single words into words intelligible to and used by children [e.g. changing ‘depression’ (depression) into ‘ledsen’ (sad)]. The second related to whole expressions (using verb-form in the headings of dimensions).

    Conclusion: The advantage of being able to collect much the same data from children and adolescents, for example in population surveys covering all ages and in chronic childhood diseases, as for adults might outweigh possible disadvantages of modifying existing HRQoL instruments. The Swedish child-friendly EQ-5D pilot version resulting from this development process is further tested for feasibility and construct validity in a clinical interview study; initial results are reported in a subsequent paper.

  • 4.
    Burström, Kristina
    et al.
    Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Medical Management Centre, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Svartengren, Magnus
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Egmar, Ann-Charlotte
    Red Cross University College of Nursing. Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Karolinska.
    Testing a Swedish child-friendly pilot version of the EQ-5D instrument: — initial results2011In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 178-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    There is an increasing interest in studying health-related quality of life in children and adolescents. A Swedish child-friendly pilot version of the EQ-5D instrument has been developed. The aim of this article is to report on its assessment of feasibility and discriminative validity.

    METHODS:

    A questionnaire with the child-friendly pilot version was addressed during a clinical examination to 260 children aged 8 years and 230 children aged 12 years. Comprehensibility and acceptability were investigated and feasibility was assessed according to missing and ambiguous answers. Discriminative validity was investigated by determining whether groups that were a priori known to differ in health status (by clinical and socio-demographic characteristics) were distinguished also by the percentage of reported problems on the five health dimensions and by visual analogue scale (VAS) scores.

    RESULTS:

    Feasibility was supported for self-completion in the presence of an interviewer. Discriminative validity was supported as children with asthma or rhinitis, severe illness or handicap, having consulted health care during the past 3 months, overweight and obesity and children with a parent born outside the Nordic countries reported more problems and had lower VAS scores.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    The results of the initial testing of the Swedish child-friendly pilot version of the EQ-5D instrument indicate feasibility and discriminative validity. However, further research should explore alternative modes of administration and study design, and be performed in groups with a larger proportion with diseased children.

  • 5.
    Fossum, Bjöörn
    et al.
    Red Cross University College of Nursing. Karolinska Hospital.
    Arborelius, E.
    Karolinska Hospital.
    Theorell, T.
    National Institute for Psychosocial Factors and Health Stockholm.
    How do patients experience consultations at an orthopaedic out-patient clinic?: Eighteen patients comment on video-taped consultations: A qualitative study1998In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 59-65Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Gyllensten, Hanna
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet / Göteborgs universitet, Sahlgrenska universitetssjukhuset.
    Wiberg, M.
    Karolinska Institutet / Försäkringskassan.
    Alexanderson, K.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Friberg, E.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Hillert, J.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Tinghög, Petter
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Public Health and Medicine.
    Comparing indirect costs of multiple sclerosis in three different years: A population-based study2016In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 26, no Suppl. 1, p. 29-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Helgesson, Magnus
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet / Karolinska Institutet.
    Tinghög, Petter
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Public Health and Medicine. Karolinska Institutet.
    Niederkrotenthaler, T.
    Medical Univiversity Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Saboonchi, Fredrik
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Public Health and Medicine.
    Mittendorfer-Rutz, E.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Labour-market marginalisation after a mental diagnosis among natives and immigrants living in Sweden2016In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 26, no Suppl. 1, p. 38-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Karlsson, E
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute.
    Sjögren Forss, K
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Jorgréus, C
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Stjernberg, Louise
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Exercise and factors associated with active commuting2014In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 24, no S2, p. 312-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Manhica, Hélio
    et al.
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Health Sciences.
    Niemi, M.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Gunnarsson, D.
    Södertörn University.
    Ståhle, G.
    Södertörn University.
    Larsson, Sofia
    The Swedish Red Cross University College.
    Saboonchi, Fredrik
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Health Sciences.
    Social participation, mental health in refugees and asylum seekers: A scoping review2018In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 28, no Suppl. 4, p. 482-482Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Okenwa-Emegwa, Leah
    et al.
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Health Sciences. Högskolan i Gävle.
    Saboonchi, Fredrik
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Health Sciences. Högskolan i Gävle.
    Tinghög, Petter
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Health Sciences. Karolinska institutet.
    Depression and Low Labour Market and Social Expectations among Resettled Syrian Refugees in Sweden: Leah Okenwa Emegwa2017In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 27, no 3Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Large numbers of refugees have come to Europe in search of safety. For non-refugee migrants, expectations and the extent to which they are met are shown to be integral components of adaptation and wellbeing. This study aims to explore the prevalence of low expectations for labour market, economic and social integration among Syrian refugees recently resettled in Sweden and whether depression is associated with these expectations.

    Methods

    A random sample of 1215 Syrian refuges of working age recently resettled in Sweden responded to a questionnaire in Arabic. Expectations were assessed by three items developed for this study. Average item score of >1.80 on the depressive symptoms in Hopkins Symptom Checklist indicated depression. Logistic regressions adjusted for demographic factors and social support were conducted. Weighted data was used to produce socio-demographically representative prevalence rates and odds ratios (ORs). Robust standard errors were used to obtain 95% confidence intervals for all estimates.

    Results

    Prevalence of low economic, social and labour market expectations were 14.1% (95% CI 12.0-16.1), 13.4% (11.3-15.4) and 10.9% (9.1-12.6) respectively. Approximately 40.2% (36.9-43.3) of the participants had depression. Those with depression were about four times more likely to have low economic expectations (OR 3.89, 95% CI 2.66-5.92), three times more likely to have low social (OR 3.1, 2.30-5.24), and labour market (OR 2.83, 1.90-4.47) expectations.

    Conclusions

    Low expectations, while not widespread, exist among Syrian refugees in Sweden. Notable proportions had depression which was also significantly associated with low expectations. The association between depression and low expectations in keys areas necessary for adaptation and wellbeing in a new land, indicates the need to address mental health issues in current societal level efforts aimed at boosting labour market participation and social inclusion.

    Key messages:

    • Notable proportions of Syrian refugees in Sweden have low expectations in domains vital for adaptation and wellbeing in a new land. Depression is significantly associated with low expectations.

    • Low expectation among Syrian refugees in domains vital for adaptation and wellbeing and the association with depression indicate need to address mental health in social and labour market interventions.

  • 11.
    Okenwa-Emegwa, Leah
    et al.
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Health Sciences. Department of occupational and public health, faculty of health and occupational studies, University of Gävle, Sweden..
    Saboonchi, Fredrik
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Health Sciences.
    Tinghög, Petter
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Health Sciences.
    Prevalence and predictors of violence among Syrian refugee women resettled in Sweden2018In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 28, no Suppl. 4, p. 156-Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Refugee women are at more risk of a continuum of violence, pre, during and post flight. After resettlement, increased family conflicts are likely, due to shifts in gender roles and changing family structures. Prevalence estimates, however, remain scarce especially for Syrian refugee women in Europe. Given that exposure to violence is a substantial risk factor for ill health and poor adaptation, this study aims to estimate the prevalence of violence in different phases of flight and associated sociodemographic factors. Methods The study is based on a random sample of 452 Syrian refugee women resettled in Sweden. Exposure to violence was operationalised as having been a victim of torture, physical or sexual violence, pre and during flight; witnessing violence was operationalised as experiencing war at close quarters, witnessing physical violence, or forced separation from loved ones, pre and during flight; family conflicts was operationalised as experiencing distressing conflicts in the family since resettlement. Descriptive analysis were conducted to estimate prevalence and logistic regression to assess associations. Weighted data produced socio-demographically representative estimates. Robust standard errors were used to obtain 95% confidence intervals for all estimates. Results About 25.1% (95% 20.9 – 29.4) of the women were exposed to violence preflight, 7.8% (95% 5.2 – 10.4) were victims during flight. Up to 93.3% (95% 90.7 – 95.9) witnessed violence preflight, 67.2% (95% 62.6 – 71.8) during flight. About 34.2% (95% 29.7 – 38.7) are experiencing distressing family conflicts.Logistic regressions showed no significant difference after controlling for age, education and marital status. Conclusions The magnitude of violence and ongoing family conflicts calls for a closer look at the plight of refugee women.Violence is widespread and not specific to any sociodemographic group, an important finding for healthcare and public health workforce to take note of. 

  • 12.
    Otok, R
    et al.
    ASPHER, Brussels, Belgium.
    Stjernberg, Louise
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Undergraduate education in public health in Europe: The positioning of bachelor programmes for public health2014In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 24, no S2, p. 301-Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In response to the increased demand from the public health labour market, various bachelor and master programmes have been developed in recent years throughout Europe. As an example, in the European ASPHER survey 18 Schools and Departments of Public Health delivered 977 bachelor degrees per year (2011/12) with a median of 55 per institution. The expectations of – present and potential - employers of professionals, trained in public health, are largely unknown. However, in comparison to the attention paid and the knowledge generated around postgraduate/master education in public health, still relatively little is known about the provision of bachelor degrees. Furthermore, while real efforts have and are made to define professional and academic frameworks, including accreditation schemes for master programmes, the roles, practices and competences for bachelor programmes are somehow blur. This presentation will report on the work of the ASPHER's Working Group on Undergraduate Public Health Education in Europe aiming to promote collaboration initiatives on bachelor programmes across Europe among academic institutions, share best practices and generate knowledge on employability and career progression of public health bachelor graduates. In particular, the results of the survey carried out by ASPHER across over 100 schools of public health in early 2014 will be presented bringing up the current and full picture as regards the undergraduate education in Public Health in Europe.

  • 13.
    Paillard-Borg, Stéphanie
    et al.
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Health Sciences.
    Holmgren, Jessica
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Health Sciences.
    Saaristo, P.
    International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, Geneva, Switzerland.
    von Strauss, Eva
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Health Sciences.
    Heroes and pariahs: Nurses in a viral haemorrhagic fever outbreak2017In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 27, no S3, p. 319-319Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Rahman, S
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Mittendorfer-Rutz, E
    Karolinska institutet.
    Alexanderson, K
    Karolinska institutet.
    Jokinen, J
    Karolinska institutet / Umeå universitet.
    Tinghög, Petter
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Public Health and Medicine. Karolinska Institutet.
    Disability pension due to common mental disorders and healthcare use before and after policy changes; a nationwide study2017In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 90-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Despite common mental disorders (CMDs) being a main reason for preterm exit from the labour market, there is limited knowledge regarding healthcare use around the time of being granted disability pension (DP) due to CMD. The aim was to study specialized healthcare use before and after being granted DP due to CMD and whether these trajectories differed before and after changes in DP granting criteria in Sweden in 2008.

    METHODS: Included individuals lived in Sweden, aged 19-64 years with incident DP due to CMD before (wave 1, 2005-06, n = 24 298) or after (wave 2, 2009-10, n = 4056) the changes in 2008. Healthcare trajectories during a 7-year window were assessed by generalized estimating equations. Between- and within-wave differences were examined by interaction models.

    RESULTS: Psychiatric healthcare increased until the year preceding DP and declined thereafter, with one exception; such outpatient care kept increasing in wave 1 following DP. In the year preceding DP, 4.6 and 19.2% of the individuals in wave 1 had psychiatric in- and specialized outpatient care, respectively, compared with 7.9 and 46.6% in wave 2. No clear pattern was observed regarding somatic healthcare. The slopes of the different DP waves differed mainly during DP granting years (1 year prior to 1 year after), showing a sharper decline in wave 2.

    CONCLUSION: Transition to DP due to CMD seems to be associated with changes in psychiatric healthcare use, with higher rates in the year preceding DP. Outpatient healthcare patterns somewhat differed among those granted DP after stricter rules were introduced.

  • 15.
    Schröder-Bäck, Peter
    et al.
    Department of International Health, School CAPHRI, Maastricht University, The Netherlands; Working Group ‘‘Ethics and Values in PublicHealth’’, Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region(ASPHER), Brussels, Belgium; Section ‘‘Ethics in Public Health’’, EuropeanPublic Health Association (EUPHA), Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Stjernberg, Louise
    Working Group ‘‘Ethics and Values in Public Health’’, Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER), Brussels, Belgium; School of Health Science, Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Borg, Ann Marie
    Department of International Health, School CAPHRI, Maastricht University, The Netherlands.
    Values and ethics amidst the economic crisis2013In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 723-724Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current protracted economic crisis is giving rise to the scarcity of public health resources across Europe. In response to budgetary pressures and the Eurozone public debt crisis, decision-makers resort to a short-term solution: the introduction of austerity measures in diverse policy fields. Health and social policy tend to be easy targets in this regard and budget cuts often include a reduction of healthcare expenditure or social welfare benefits. We suggest incorporating discussions from the field of ethics in policy making processes and in the academic debate on austerity. This includes recognising procedural justice as a social value. On the road to economic recovery, governments are compelled to resort to fiscal consolidation and austerity packages but decisions taken to save our European ships in crisis should be anchored in values such as (procedural) justice, equity and solidarity.

  • 16.
    Sjögren Forss, Katarina
    et al.
    Department of Health, Blekinge Institute of Technology; Jönkoping University .
    Stjernberg, Louise
    Department of Health, Blekinge Institute of Technology; Jönkoping University .
    Differences in physical activity patterns among women and men with and without children2012In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 22, no suppl. 2, p. 133-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Due to health effects from participating in physical activity (PA) it is from a public health perspective important to study how participation PA may change over a lifetime and how different life events impact on the participation. Although studies in the field are sparse, parenthood has been found to be a life event associated with decreased PA, especially among women. We studied physical activities performed among women and men with and without children. Methods This study includes data for from parents-to-be, 224 women and 208 men, from Karlskrona municipality, situated in the south eastern part of Sweden. Data collection was carried out during 2008–2009. When contacting the antenatal clinics in the municipality all expectant parents were asked by the midwife about participation in the study. Respondents completed a questionnaire about age, socioeconomic status, level of education, previous children, smoking and alcohol habits, Body Mass Index, self estimated health, and participation in different kinds of outdoor and indoor recreational PA. We measured the self-reported amount of outdoor recreational PA undertaken during the last year. Results Both women and men without children performed more outdoor and indoor PA compared to those who had children. Women walked significantly more (p = 0.017) than men irrespective of whether or not they had children. Women with children participated in significantly more gardening (p = 0.009) and winter sports (p = 0.013) than women without children, and women without children participated in significantly more PA indoors (p = 0.001) than women with children. Men with children participated in significantly more gardening (p = 0.001) than men without children, and men without children participated in significantly more PA indoors (p = 0.006). Conclusions Becoming a parent is a life event that affects participation in PA, both concerning duration and the kind of activities performed. To gain deeper understanding and more insight about reasons for these changed patterns of PA as well as the effects on the outcome of the parents health in a short- and long term would be important to follow prospectively.

  • 17.
    Sjögren, Katarina
    et al.
    School of Health Science, Blekinge Institute of Technology; Lund University.
    Hansson, Eva Ekvall
    Lund University.
    Stjernberg, Louise
    School of Health Science, Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Outdoor recreational physical activity and parenthood in a gender perspective-a study from south eastern part of Sweden2010In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 20, no Suppl. 1, p. 182-182Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Sjölund, Sara
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Hinas, E.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Nilsson, K.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Alexanderson, K.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Bottai, M.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Tinghög, Petter
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Public Health and Medicine. Karolinska Institutet.
    Predicting long-term sick leave among sick listed due to depressive episode, a Swedish cohort study2016In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 26, no Suppl. 1, p. 38-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Stjernberg, Louise
    et al.
    Blekinge Inst Res & Dev; Blekinge Inst Technol, Sch Hlth Sci.
    Holmkvist, K
    Blekinge Inst Res & Dev..
    Berglund, J
    Blekinge Inst Res & Dev; Blekinge Inst Technol, Sch Hlth Sci.
    A newly detected TBE focus in the south-eastern part of Sweden: a follow-up study of TBEV seroprevalence, 1991 and 2002.2007In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 17, no Suppl. 2, p. 38-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. In 2002, 2 cases of tick-borne encephalitis were diagnosed among inhabitants living in a tick endemic area on the island of Aspö in south-eastern Sweden. During the previous 25 years, only 2 additional cases had been diagnosed in that region of Sweden. To study presence and evolution of seroprevalence of antibodies to the tick-borne encephalitis virus we carried out a follow-up study, comparing inhabitants´ immunoglobulin G antibody levels against the virus in blood samples drawn in 1991 and 2002. Method. The island of Aspö is located in the south-eastern archipelago by the Baltic Sea in the county of Blekinge, Sweden. Due to the confirmed cases of tick-borne encephalitis, permanent and part-time residents were offered tick-borne encephalitis vaccination in the autumn of 2002. Blood samples were collected and analyzed by the two-step enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect immunoglobulin G antibodies against tick-borne encephalitis virus. Also, questionnaires including questions about sex, age, earlier history of and previous vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis, residency on Aspö, history of observed tick-bites and earlier history of Lyme borreliosis and human granulocytic erhlichiosis, was filled in. All those individuals who had participated in a study on LB performed in 1991, and where available blood samples made it possible to compare tick-borne encephalitis immunoglobulin G seroprevalence, were included in the follow-up. Results. A significant increase in immunoglobulin G levels was seen during the follow-up with 24 (12.0%) of 200 blood samples being seropositive in 2002 versus 7 (3,5%) of 200 blood samples in 1991. However, only five participants converted from seronegative level during the 11 y follow-up and one of these participants had been vaccinated against tick-borne encephalitis during the observation period. In only four of all positive sera from 2002 and in no sera from 1991, were neutralizing antibodies against tick-borne encephalitis virus demonstrated. Compared with women, significantly more men were seropositive. In comparison with other age groups the greatest increase was seen in the age group 20 to 29 years. However, most seropostive levels were seen among those >50 years. Conclusion. Although we found seropositive blood samples in this area already in 1991, the existence of tick-borne encephalitis virus at that time is doubtful since no neutralizing antibodies against tick-borne encephalitis virus were demonstrated. During the 11 years follow-up an obvious increase of tick-borne encephalitis immunoglobulin G seropositive levels in humans was seen. Recommending preventing measures, including vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis is of importance for people regularly staying in this endemic area.

  • 20.
    Tinghög, Petter
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Health Sciences.
    Mental ill-health, trauma and adverse post-migratory experiences among refugees from Syria in Sweden2017In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 27, no S3, p. 49-50Article in journal (Other academic)
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