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  • 1.
    Díaz, Miguel
    et al.
    Federal University of Uberlandia, Brazil.
    Bocanegra, Olga L.
    Federal University of Uberlandia, Brazil.
    Teixeira, R. R.
    Federal University of Uberlandia, Brazil.
    Espindola, Foued Salmen
    Federal University of Uberlandia, Brazil.
    Response of salivary markers of autonomic activity to elite competition2012In: International Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0172-4622, E-ISSN 1439-3964, Vol. 33, no 9, p. 763-768Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the response of salivary total protein (TP), alpha-amylase (sAA) and chromogranin A (CgA) to sporting competition and their relation with positive and negative affect. 11 professional swimmers were examined during the first day of a national contest and on a recreated event that matched time-of-the-day and day-of-the-week assessments 2 weeks later. Total protein was determined by the Bradford method and sAA and CgA by Western blotting upon awakening, 30 and 60 min post awakening, immediately before warming up for competition and 5, 20 and 60 min after competition. Psychometric instruments included the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule-X. The concentrations of TP, sAA and CgA differed from controls only prior to and 5 min after the event. We observed positive correlations between higher negative affect scores with higher levels of TP, sAA and CgA prior to the event on the competition day. All 3 markers showed a similar reactivity to sporting competition, which may be attributed to the mechanisms responsible for protein secretion into saliva when collection is performed with no exogenous stimulation. TP is an attractive marker in sports psychology since its determination is faster and cheaper than traditional kinetic or immune assays.

  • 2.
    Díaz, Miguel M.
    et al.
    Federal University of Uberlandia, Uberlandia, Brazil.
    Bocanegra, Olga L.
    Federal University of Uberlandia, Uberlandia, Brazil.
    Teixeira, R. R.
    Federal University of Uberlandia, Uberlandia, Brazil.
    Soares, S. S.
    Federal University of Uberlandia, Uberlandia, Brazil.
    Espindola, Foued Salmen
    Federal University of Uberlandia, Uberlandia, Brazil.
    Salivary nitric oxide and alpha-amylase as indexes of training intensity and load2013In: International Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0172-4622, E-ISSN 1439-3964, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 8-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the variation in salivary nitric oxide (NO), alpha-amylase (sAA) and serum markers of muscle injury during 21 weeks of training in elite swimmers. Samples of saliva and blood were collected once a month during 5 months from 11 male professional athletes during their regular training season. The variation in each marker throughout the 21 weeks was compared with the dynamics of trainingvolume, intensity and load. Unstimulated whole saliva was assessed for NO and sAA whereas venous blood was assessed for lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and γ-glutamyltransferase. Nitric oxide and sAA showed a proportional response to the intensity of training. However, whereas the concentration of NO increased across the 21 weeks, the activity of sAA decreased. Similar variations in the concentration of NO and the markers of muscle injury were also observed. The higher concentration of NO might be attributed to changes in haemodynamics and muscle regenerative processes. On the other hand, autonomic regulation towards parasympathetic predominance might have been responsible for the decrease in sAA activity. These findings provide appealing evidence for the utilization of salivary constituents in sports medicine to monitor training programmes.

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