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  • 1.
    Berglund, Johan
    et al.
    Lund University / Blekinge Institute of Technology / Research Centre for Zoonotic Ecology and Epidemiology.
    Stjernberg, Louise
    Lund University / Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Ornstein, Katharina
    Lund University.
    Tykesson-Joelsson, Katarina
    Båstad Health Center.
    Walter, Hallstein
    Örkelljunga Health Center.
    5-y follow-up study of patients with neuroborreliosis2002In: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0036-5548, E-ISSN 1651-1980, Vol. 34, no 6, p. 421-425Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this follow-up study was to determine the long-term outcome of strictly classified cases of neuroborreliosis treated with antibiotics. A one-year prospective population-based survey of Lyme borreliosis was conducted in southern Sweden, between 1992 and 1993. A total of 349 identified cases with suspected neuroborreliosis were followed up 5 years later. Medical records were reviewed and all participants filled in a questionnaire. Of those classified with definite neuroborreliosis 114/130 completed the follow-up, of whom 111 had completed the initial antibiotic treatment. Of the 114 patients followed up, 86 (75%) had recovered completely and 70 (61%) had recovered within 6 months. Residual neurological symptoms such as facial palsy, concentration disorder, paresthesia and/or neuropathy were reported by 28/114. No significant differences between different antibiotic treatments were observed in terms of occurrence of sequelae. To conclude, we found that 25% (95% confidence interval 17-33%) of the patients suffered from residual neurological symptoms 5 years post-treatment. However, the clinical outcome of treated neuroborreliosis is favourable as only 14/114 (12%) of the patients had sequelae that influenced their daily activity post-treatment. Early diagnosis and treatment would seem to be of great importance in order to avoid such sequelae.

  • 2.
    Stjernberg, Louise
    et al.
    School of Health Science, Blekinge Institute of Technology; Department of Community Medicine, Lund University.
    Berglund, Johan
    School of Health Science, Blekinge Institute of Technology; Department of Community Medicine, Lund University.
    Detecting ticks on light versus dark clothing2005In: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0036-5548, E-ISSN 1651-1980, Vol. 37, no 5, p. 361-364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is common belief that ticks are more visible and easier to detect on light clothing in comparison with dark clothing. We studied which of the clothing, light or dark, had the least attractive effect on Ixodes ricinus, thus minimizing exposure and thereby in theory help to prevent tick borne diseases in humans. Ten participants, exposed by walking in tick endemic areas, wore alternately light and dark clothing before every new exposure. Nymphal and adult ticks on the clothing were collected and counted. Totally, 886 nymphal ticks were collected. The overall mean in found ticks between the both groups differed significantly, with 20.8 more ticks per person on light clothing. All participants had more ticks on light clothing in all periods of exposure. Dark clothing seems to attract fewer ticks.

  • 3.
    Stjernberg, Louise
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute for Research and Development; School of Health Science, Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Holmkvist, Karin
    Blekinge Institute for Research and Development.
    Berglund, Johan
    Blekinge Institute for Research and Development; School of Health Science, Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    A newly detected tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) focus in southeastern Sweden: a follow-up study of TBE virus (TBEV) seroprevalence2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0036-5548, E-ISSN 1651-1980, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 4-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2002, two cases of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) were diagnosed in inhabitants of a tick endemic area on the island of Aspö in southeastern Sweden. During the previous 25 y, only two other cases of TBE had been diagnosed in that region of Sweden. To investigate the presence and evolution of seroprevalence of antibodies to TBE virus (TBEV), we compared inhabitants´ anti-TBEV immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels in blood samples drawn in 1991 and 2002. A significant increase in IgG antibody levels was observed in 24/200 (12.0%) 2002 blood samples compared to 7/200 (3.5%) 1991 samples. However, neutralizing antibodies were detected in only 4 of the two-step enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) IgG positive sera against TBEV, corresponding to a TBEV neutralizing test (NT) prevalence of 2%. Significantly more men than women were seropositive for TBEV antibodies. Compared to other age groups, the greatest increase in TBEV antibody levels was observed in the 20-29 y age group. However, the majority of seropositive samples were from participants >50 y of age. Recommending preventative measures, including vaccination against TBE, to individuals who reside in or regularly visit TBEV endemic areas is suggested.

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