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  • 1.
    Gyllensten, Hanna
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet / Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg.
    Wiberg, Michael
    Karolinska Institutet / Swedish Social Insurance Agency.
    Alexanderson, Kristina
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Friberg, Emilie
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Hillert, Jan
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Tinghög, Petter
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Health Sciences. Karolinska Institutet.
    Comparing costs of illness of multiple sclerosis in three different years: A population-based study2018In: Multiple Sclerosis, ISSN 1352-4585, E-ISSN 1477-0970, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 520-528Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about changes in the costs of illness (COI) among multiple sclerosis (MS) patients during recent years.

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the COI among MS patients and matched controls in 2006, 2009, and 2012, respectively, indicating the costs attributable to the MS disease.

    METHODS: Three cross-sectional datasets were analyzed, including all MS patients in Sweden aged 20-60 years and five matched controls for each of them. The analyses were based on 10,531 MS patients and 52,655 matched controls for 2006, 11,722 and 58,610 individuals for 2009, and 12,789 and 63,945 for 2012. Nationwide registers, including prescription drug use, specialized healthcare, sick leave, and disability pension, were linked to estimate the prevalence-based COI.

    RESULTS: Adjusted for inflation, the average difference in COI between MS patients and matched controls were Swedish Krona (SEK) 243,751 (95% confidence interval: SEK 239,171-248,331) in 2006, SEK 238,971 (SEK 234,516-243,426) in 2009, and SEK 225,923 (SEK 221,630-230,218) in 2012. The difference in indirect costs were SEK 170,502 (SEK 166,478-174,525) in 2006, SEK 158,839 (SEK 154,953-162,726) in 2009, and SEK 141,280 (SEK 137,601-144,960) in 2012.

    CONCLUSION: The inflation-adjusted COI of MS patients was lower in 2012 than in 2006, in particular regarding indirect costs.

  • 2.
    Tinghög, Petter
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Insurance Med.
    Hillert, Jan
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci.
    Kjeldgård, Linnea
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Insurance Med.
    Wiberg, Michael
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Insurance Med.
    Glaser, Anna
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci.
    Alexanderson, Kristina
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Insurance Med.
    High prevalence of sickness absence and disability pension among multiple sclerosis patients: a nationwide population-based study.2013In: Multiple Sclerosis, ISSN 1352-4585, E-ISSN 1477-0970, Vol. 19, no 14, p. 1923-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Although multiple sclerosis (MS) often implies substantial disability, there is little knowledge about sick leave and disability pension among MS patients.

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence rates of sick leave and disability pension among MS patients and to explore how socio-demographics are associated with such rates.

    METHODS: The register data of all people who lived in Sweden in 2005 and were 16-64 years old was used to identify 9721 MS patients and matched controls. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated and effect modifications were evaluated with Wald X(2) tests.

    RESULTS: In 2005, 61.7% of the MS patients were on partial or full disability pension compared to 14.2% among the controls. Of the others, 36.8% had ≥ 1 sick-leave spell for >14 days during that year. Socio-demographics were similarly associated with sick leave and disability pension among MS patients and controls, with the noteworthy exceptions that female gender and immigration status were less potent risk factors in the MS population (p<0.05).

    CONCLUSION: In spite of widespread access to modern health care including disease-modifying drugs, the majority of MS patients of working ages were on a disability pension. Strategies enabling MS patients to retain their footing in the labour market are needed.

  • 3.
    Wiberg, Michael
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet.
    Friberg, Emilie
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet.
    Stenbeck, Magnus
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet.
    Alexanderson, Kristina
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet.
    Norlund, Anders
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet.
    Hillert, Jan
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet.
    Tinghög, Petter
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet.
    Sources and level of income among individuals with multiple sclerosis compared to the general population: A nationwide population-based study.2015In: Multiple Sclerosis, ISSN 1352-4585, E-ISSN 1477-0970, Vol. 21, no 13, p. 1730-1741Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with reduced work capacity, but there is limited knowledge about MS patients' sources of income.

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to elucidate MS patients' earnings and social benefits compared to those of the general population.

    METHODS: From nationwide registers of all residents in Sweden aged 21-64 years in 2010 (n=5,291,764), those with an MS diagnosis (n=13,979) were compared to a propensity score matched reference group (n=69,895). Descriptive statistics and regression models were used to estimate the percentage difference between the MS patients and the matched references regarding the following annual incomes: earnings, disability pension, sickness absence, disability allowance, unemployment compensation and social assistance.

    RESULTS: Both MS patients and the matched references received most of their income from earnings followed by disability pension and sickness absence. MS patients that were diagnosed in 2010 had 15% lower earnings than the matched references, while MS patients diagnosed before 2005 had 38% lower earnings. Corresponding figures regarding summed social benefits were 33% and 130% higher for MS patients, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: The results indicate that MS patients are overrepresented, in relative and absolute terms, regarding health-related benefits and have lower levels of earnings. However, the redistributing welfare systems appear to financially compensate the MS patients considerably.

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