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  • 1.
    Nordberg, G
    et al.
    Aging Research Center (ARC), Stockholm.
    von Strauss, Eva
    Aging Research Center (ARC), Stockholm.
    Kåreholt, I
    Aging Research Center (ARC), Stockholm.
    Johansson, L
    The National Board of Health and Welfare, Stockholm.
    Wimo, A
    Aging Research Center (ARC), Stockholm.
    The amount of informal and formal care among non-demented and demented elderly persons: - results from a Swedish population-based study2005In: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, ISSN 0885-6230, E-ISSN 1099-1166, Vol. 20, no 9, p. 862-871Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Developed countries are experiencing a dramatic increase in the proportion of elderly persons, as well as a progressive aging of the elderly population itself. Knowledge regarding the amount of formal and informal care and its interaction at population-based level is limited.

    Objectives

    To describe the amount of formal and informal care for non-demented and demented persons living at home in a population-based sample.

    Methods

    The population consisted of all inhabitants, 75 + years, living in a rural community (n = 740). They were clinically examined by physicians and interviewed by nurses. Dementia severity was measured according to Washington University Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR). Informal and formal care was examined with the RUD (Resource Utilization in Dementia) instrument.

    Results

    The amount of informal care was much greater than formal care and also greater among demented than non-demented. There was a relationship between the severity of the congnitive decline and the amount of informal care while this pattern was weaker regarding formal care. Tobit regression analyses showed a clear association between the number of hours of informal and formal care and cognitive decline although this pattern was much stronger for informal than formal care.

    Conclusions

    Informal care substitutes rather than compliments formal care and highlights the importance of future studies in order to truly estimate the amount of informal and formal care and the interaction between them. This knowledge will be of importance when planning the use of limited resources, and when supporting informal carers in their effort to care for their intimates.

  • 2.
    Nordberg, Gunilla
    et al.
    Aging Research Center (ARC), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Wimo, Anders
    Aging Research Center (ARC), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Jönsson, Linus
    European Health Economics, Stockholm.
    Kåreholt, Ingernar
    Aging Research Center (ARC), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Sjölund, Britt-Marie
    Aging Research Center (ARC), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Lagergren, Mårten
    Stockholm Gerontology Research Center, Stockholm.
    von Strauss, Eva
    Aging Research Center (ARC), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Time use and costs of institutionalised elderly persons with or without dementia: results from the Nordanstig cohort in the Kungsholmen Project - a population based study in Sweden2007In: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, ISSN 0885-6230, E-ISSN 1099-1166, Vol. 22, no 7, p. 639-648Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The aging of the population has become a worldwide phenomenon. This leads to increased demand for services and with limited resources it is important to find a way to estimate how resources can be match to those with greatest need.

    Aims

    To analyse time use and costs in institutional care in relation to different levels of cognitive and functional capacity for elderly persons.

    Methods

    The population consisted of all institutionalised inhabitants, 75 + years, living in a rural community (n = 176). They were clinically examined by physicians and interviewed by nurses. Staff and informal care-giving time was examined with the RUD (Resource Utilization in Dementia) instrument.

    Results

    Tobit regression analyses showed that having dementia increased the amount of ADL care time with 0.9 h when compared to those not having dementia, whereas each loss of an ADL function (0–6) added 0.6 h of ADL care time. Analysing the total care time use, the presence of dementia added more than 9 h, while each loss of one ADL function added 2.9 h. There were some informal care contributions, however with no correlation to severity in dependency. The estimated cost for institutional care increased with more than 85% for people being dependent in 5–6 ADL activities compared to persons with no functional dependency, and with 30% for persons with dementia compared to the non-demented.

    Conclusion

    There is a variation in time use in institutional settings due to differences in ADL dependency but also whether dementia is present or not. This variation has implications for costs of institutional care.

  • 3.
    Wimo, A
    et al.
    Alzheimer Disease Research Center (KI-ADRC), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Sjölund, B. M.
    Aging Research Center (ARC), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Sköldunger, A
    Aging Research Center (ARC), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Johansson, L
    Aging Research Center (ARC), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Nordberg, G
    Aging Research Center (ARC), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    von Strauss, Eva
    The Swedish Red Cross University College. Aging Research Center (ARC), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Incremental patterns in the amount of informal and formal care among non-demented and demented elderly persons: results from a 3-year follow-up population-based study2011In: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, ISSN 0885-6230, E-ISSN 1099-1166, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 56-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    Elderly care includes complex interactions between formal services, informal care, morbidity and disabilities. Studies of the incremental effects of formal and informal care are rare and thus the objective was to describe the longitudinal patterns in formal and informal care given to non-demented and demented persons living in a rural area in Sweden.

    Methods

    Transitions in the Kungsholmen–Nordanstig Project (n = 919) was followed up 3 years later (n = 579), presented as different combinations of informal and formal care, institutionalization and mortality. Number of hours spent on care was examined by the Resource Utilization in Dementia instrument (RUD). Bootstrapped descriptive statistics and regression models were applied.

    Results

    The overall mortality during follow-up was 34%, and 15% had been institutionalized. Of those who lived at home, those receiving only formal care had been institutionalized to the greatest extent (29%; p < 0.05). In terms of hours, informal care decreased amongst demented. The ratio between demented and non-demented was greater at baseline, both regarding informal care (10:1 and 3:1, respectively) and formal care (5:1 and 4:1, respectively). People with mild cognitive decline and no home support at baseline had a great risk of being receiver of care (formal or informal) or dead at follow-up.

    Conclusions

    The amount of informal care was lower for demented persons still living at home at follow-up than at baseline, probably due to selection effects (institutionalization and mortality). Mild cognitive decline of non-users of care at baseline was strongly associated with receiving care or being dead at follow-up.

1 - 3 of 3
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