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  • 1.
    Stålberg, Anna
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademien för hälsa, vård och välfärd.
    Facilitating participation: A joint use of an interactive technology as a facilitator in healthcare situations2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Children’s right to participation is highlighted in laws and convention texts. Likewise, children express the importance of being involved in situations affecting them. Being involved enables them to express the own perspective. In recent years, children’s use of interactive technology in tablets and smartphones has increased. The use of technology is also increasing within healthcare and pediatric contexts. This research project aimed to develop and test an application, as an interactive communication tool [IACTA], meant to facilitate young children’s participation in healthcare situations when guided by professionals.

    Methods

    Children’s perceptions of healthcare situations were sought through interviews, vignettes and drawings. A participatory design process transformed these perceptions into iteratively evolving prototypes of an application, IACTA. In healthcare situations, video observations captured cues of participation demonstrated by the children when using the application guided by professionals. Further a quantitative approach identified the distribution of the cue usage. In total, 114 children participated in the project, in two clinical settings and a preschool.

    Results

    The children perceived everyone involved in a healthcare situation as actors by their own. Their perceptions of what was important were transformed into the software of IACTA. The children were co-designers in the development process of the applications and contributed to its age-appropriateness, usability and likeability. When the final version of the application was tested in healthcare situations, the children demonstrated participation cues, meant as curious, thoughtful and affirmative. The distribution revealed that curious cues were mainly demonstrated. Age and earlier experiences of healthcare situations influenced how the cues were demonstrated.

    Conclusion

    Searching the children’s perspective, when using IACTA, revealed a situated participation based on their inter-inter-action with the application itself and the professionals. This situated participation guided the professionals how to facilitate and best involve the specific child in the situation in an individualized way.

  • 2.
    Stålberg, Anna
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademien för hälsa, vård och välfärd.
    Sandberg, Anette
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademien för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation.
    Larsson, Thomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademien för innovation, design och teknik.
    Söderbäck, Maja
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademien för hälsa, vård och välfärd.
    Interactive communication used to facilitate young children's participation in healthcare situations2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A child´s right´s perspective states children´s rights to be involved and participate in situations that matter to them. Facilitating younger children´s participation in healthcare situations is crucial. Interviews and drawings revealed children´s perceptions as being actors in these specific situations. Parents and professionals were also perceived as actors. This information was used in the iterative development and improvement, with children as co-designers, of an interactive communication tool meant to facilitate child participation in healthcare situations.

  • 3.
    Stålberg, Anna
    et al.
    Mälardalen University.
    Sandberg, Anette
    Mälardalen University.
    Larsson, Thomas
    Mälardalen University.
    Söderbäck, Maja
    Mälardalen University.
    The IACTA-project: interactive technology as one way to create openings for young children's participation when interacting in healthcare situations2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Children’s participation in all situations that matter to them is one of the fundamental rights according to UN: s Convention on the Rights of the Child. A healthcare situation is challenging for young children and ways of improving participation are important. Situated participation is facilitated by professionals who are aware of their child perspective which includes attention of the child’s perspective.

    Aim

    The aim, for a Swedish project, was, with the child’s perspective in focus, to construct an interactive communication tool to facilitate younger children’s, aged three to five years, participation in healthcare situations.

    Method

    A phenomenographic approach combined with a qualitative iterative development process has been used for constructing the IACTA tool. Children in a preschool, primary healthcare clinic and an outpatient unit at a hospital participated in interviews combined with vignettes and drawings as well as in iterative phases evaluating evolving prototypes. The project was approved by the regional ethic committee.

    Findings

    The children’s verbal and non-verbal perceptions of being in healthcare situations revealed descriptions of actions where everyone present in the situations was perceived as actors. The perceptions of the specific situation itself was described as well. These perceptions were used in both content and graphic design in the evolving interactive prototypes. An on-going iterative feedback from the children, who participated as co-designers, subsequently transformed the prototypes into a usable, likeable and age appropriate interactive communication tool, IACTA.

    Conclusion

    Visual guidance by an interactive communication tool, which is age appropriate and likeable for younger children, is one possible way to pathways and openings for young children’s participation in healthcare situations.

    Implications

    An increased situated participation, as well as improved understanding of the specific situation, contributes in a positive way for the child in the present healthcare situation as well as in similar situations in the future.

  • 4.
    Stålberg, Anna
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Anette
    Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Söderbäck, Maja
    Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Child-centred Care: Health Professionals' Perceptions of What Aspects are Meaningful when using Interactive Technology as a Facilitator in Healthcare Situations2018Ingår i: Journal of Pediatric Nursing: Nursing Care of Children and Families, ISSN 0882-5963, E-ISSN 1532-8449, Vol. 43, s. e10-e17Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: A prerequisite for child-centred care is children’s participation, which in paediatrics can partly be enhanced by using interactive technology solutions, for instance tablet or smartphone-based applications. These applications, however, mainly target older children. In a research project, a tablet-based application, i.e. a communication tool, was developed, meant to facilitate young children’s participation in healthcare situations. This study explored healthprofessionals’ perceptions of what aspects are meaningful when jointly using such an application in healthcare situations.

    Design/methods: Using the critical incident technique, 18 qualitative, semi-structured interviews focusing on critical incidents were performed with four health professionals who had used the interactive communication tool together with children in various healthcare situations. The data were analysed according to inductive content analysis.

    Results: Results showed that the health professionals described the use of the tool as meaningful because it provided information that helped the children increase their participation, modify their understanding of the situations, and reduce their fear. The tool was also perceived to contribute to a common language between the children and the professionals, which improved their overall communication.

    Conclusion: The introduction of an interactivecommunication tool in healthcare situations seemed to be beneficial for both the children and the health professionals.

    Practice implications: An interactive communication tool, facilitating both verbal and non-verbal communication, can reinforce children’s participation in healthcare situations and contribute to positive outcomes in the child-professional relationship, as well as in the situation itself.

  • 5.
    Stålberg, Anna
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademien för hälsa, vård och välfärd.
    Söderbäck, Maja
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademien för hälsa, vård och välfärd.
    Sandberg, Anette
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademien för utbildning, kultur och kommunikation.
    Health professionals experiences of guidance when interactive technology is used as a facilitator of young children’s participation in healthcare situations2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Children’s options of participation in healthcare situations depends on their engagement. Professionals can promote or delay the children’s involvement. Thus children’s active participation in a situation is an ambiguous challenge for the professionals to facilitate. Interactive technology has been assimilated into children’s everyday lives, even the younger ones. During the last decade, the access of applications for children has grown exponentially, also within pediatric contexts. A recent project developed an application for children aged three to five years. This application, also addressed as an interactive communication tool [IACTA], is meant to be used in specific health care situations, such as physical examinations and needle procedures, to facilitate young children’s participation. When introduced in situations, the use of IACTA is guided by professionals. The aim of this study was to describe crucial aspects from the health professionals’ experiences of bringing IACTA into play in the specific healthcare situations.

    Methods

    A critical incident technique was used in interviews with health professionals regarding their retrospective experiences of the situation when guiding the child using the application in specific healthcare situations. The interviews were later analysed using inductive qualitative content analysis.

    Results

    The preliminary results, from sensitive meaning units, codes and generic categories towards main categories, show that IACTA can contribute to involve the children and making them comfortable by limiting their fear and to learn and understand. IACTA also contributes to create a mutual relation between the child and the professionals and to contribute to health professionals making a situational adaptation of the event.

    Conclusion

    Interactive technology will support young children’s participation in healthcare situations. However, their participation is also depended on health professionals’ ways of guiding the individual child when using the technology, both regarding decisions on when using the technology as well as their specific technological skills.

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