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  • 1.
    Andersson, Lena
    et al.
    Centre for Clinical Research, Sörmland, Uppsala University.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    School of Health, Care and Welfare, Mälardalen University.
    Nordgren, Lena
    School of Health, Care and Welfare, Mälardalen University.
    Differences between heart failure clinics and primary health care2013Ingår i: British Journal of Community Nursing, ISSN 1462-4753, E-ISSN 2052-2215, Vol. 18, nr 6, s. 288-292Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a paucity of knowledge concerning how people with heart failure experience differences between specialised heart failure clinics and primary healthcare in Sweden. This study aimed to describe differences regarding information and follow- up in heart failure clinics and primary healthcare. The study was conducted in Sweden in 2011. Four people (three men, one woman: aged 60 to 84) with heart failure (NYHA II) were interviewed. The interviews were analysed with qualitative content analysis. The findings revealed after referral from the heart failure clinic to primary healthcare, follow-ups were omitted. Still, the patients needed care, support and information. The findings are illuminated in four themes. The patients' varying and individual needs can be difficult to recognise and manage unless they are followed-up from either HFC or PHC on a regular basis.

  • 2.
    Carlander, Ida
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndha Högskola.
    Hellström, Ingrid
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Sandberg, Jonas
    Jönköping University.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Röda Korsets Högskola, Avdelningen Vård och Omvårdnad.
    The Distrained Masculinity2016Ingår i: EPAC 2015: 14th World Congress of the European Association for Palliative Care : Building Bridges : 8-10 May 2015, Copenhagen, Denmark, Newmarket: Hayward Medical Communications, 2016, Vol. 1, s. 206-, artikel-id P2-160Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Dying is a gendered situated experience. Relatively few discussions about death and dying have looked beyond patient perspective in relation to culture and images of men and masculinity. Despite a growing body of literature on dying, criticalstudies about men and masculinitiesin relation to thisis needed. Aim: The aim wasto describe the perceived and self-reflected processes of dying in relation to gendered ideas of culture, family and identity. Methods: We used a narrative thematic approach to analyse 8 interviews conducted over 18 month with one man close to death. The analysisfocuses on the interplay of death and dying and examines how they can be related to the concept of hegemonic masculinity and the processes connecting such men with the position of being. Result: Three themes are presented here: The priorities – straightened, the body – revised, the fatherhood – comprised. Setting the prioritiesstraight when time was meted out entails revising norms connected to work and what it meansto be a“real”man. The navigation towards child-centered manhood representsinstant re-evaluation of work. The presence of body is a deeply rooted foundation in perceptions and ideas of masculinity. Hence, the body is often regarded as a machine, i.e. working and operating in socialsituations, and bodily decline is a dispossession of masculinity. Achieving the goal of a“positively involved fatherhood”indicatesthat the amount of involvement mattersin contemporary masculinity. Being presentseemsto involve a range of responsibilities,such as economy, practical and emotionalstrings even beyond death. Conclusion: The overarching“distrained masculinity”usesimages and ideals astoolsto reach last possible opportunitiesfor fulfillment rather than filling a function as a style and posing in gendered meanings, covering strategies of: concentration asin putting priorities wright, dispossession or loss due to bodily decline and, extension of responsibilities beyond death.

  • 3.
    Chatchumni, Manaporn
    et al.
    Röda Korsets Högskola, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen. School of Nursing at Rangsit University, Thailand.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Röda Korsets Högskola, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Mazaheri, Monir
    Röda Korsets Högskola, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Towards person-centered pain management in surgical care: Addressing the overlapping pain management systems in nursing education to enhance practice2019Ingår i: Global Nursing Education Conference: Nursing Education, Canada, 2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Since nurses’ work is knowledge-based an ineffective pain management may be the nurse’s perceptions of the patient in pain, which are a barrier of communication between nurses and patients’ pain within individual contexts. The purpose was to explore nurses’ post-operative pain management practices. A qualitative triangulation design was used, applying numerous qualitative methods: observations in a postoperative pain management setting (100 hours); in-depth interviews (12 nurses), three focus group discussions (18 nurses), and narratives relating to 69 critical incidents gathered during recurrent visits over a period of ten weeks (9 nurses). Content analysis, as outlined in grounded theory, was applied.

    The findings revealed the complex communication system that were nurses affirmed patient’s pain by using double- and triple-control methods to document and record it. As a consequence, they were managing pain by administrative prescription when the patients had requested rather than being proactive in providing pain relief. Mainly of ineffective succeed of communication tasks and information about the patients’ pain in post-operative pain that was available analgesics as causes delayed for pain relief.

    From the findings the complex communication system was discuss within the responding to and addressing patients’ postoperative pain system model, it was most helpful in creating a meaningful way of communicating education can prepare students for effective communication in a complex understanding about pain management, it must seek opportunities to challenge and change the way nurses think address how pain management within different interacting structures in practice and are create new and important ways of communicating with patients.

  • 4.
    Chatchumni, Manaporn
    et al.
    Rangsit University, Pathumthani, Thailand.
    Namvongprom, Ampaporn
    Rangsit University, Pathumthani, Thailand.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Röda Korsets Högskola, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Mazaheri, Monir
    Röda Korsets Högskola, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen. Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Engagement and availability in shaping nurses’ management of postoperative pain: a qualitative study2018Ingår i: Electronic Physician, ISSN 2008-5842, Vol. 10, nr 8, s. 7235-7242Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Studies reporting inadequate nursing care for patients indicate that nurses are negatively affected in such situations, and research is needed to study nursing care in postoperative situations. Objective: To describe situations of postoperative pain management in a surgical ward in Thailand. Methods: A qualitative approach using the Critical Incident Technique was chosen to investigate situations of postoperative pain management from the perspective of surgical nurses in Thailand. Data were collected through multiple semi-structured interviews with nine nurses over a five-week period. Results: The situations of surgical nurses described three elements that heavily influenced the quality of postoperative pain management: engagement in a trustful nurse-patient relationship, availability of pain medication and nursing care when needed, and imbalance between meeting the patient’s needs and completing routine nursing duties. Conclusion: The results help to expand our understanding of how Thai nurses manage pain in postoperative situations and indicate areas that could be improved in terms of how nurses respond to patients’ pain. Nurses challenge existing guidelines and facilitate development of new nursing guidelines and/or policies in pain management.

  • 5.
    Chatchumni, Manaporn
    et al.
    Röda Korsets Högskola. Rangsit University, Pathumthani, Thailand.
    Namvongprom, Ampaporn
    Rangsit University, Pathumthani, Thailand.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Röda Korsets Högskola, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Mazaheri, Monir
    Röda Korsets Högskola, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Exploring the different management structures in nurses responses and treating of patients’ postoperative pain: A qualitative triangulation study2019Ingår i: Electronic Physician, ISSN 2008-5842, Vol. 11, nr 2, s. 7536--7543Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Nurses’ roles are an important aspect of their approaches to pain management and monitoring in the post-operative phase of recovery in a surgical ward. A barrier to successful pain management may be the nurse’s perceptions of the patient in pain, which are confounded by the patterns of communication within individual contexts. We need to study, grasp and understand the complexities of the pain management practice within the context of the surgical ward in order to be able to improve the practices and design appropriate interventions to help patients in need. Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore nurses’ postoperative pain management practices. Methods: This qualitative triangulation study was conducted in a surgical ward at a public hospital in Bangkok (Thailand) from 2012 to 2015. We applied four qualitative methods in the study: 1) observations in a postoperative pain management setting (100 hours); 2) in-depth interviews (12 nurses), 3) three focus group discussions (18 nurses), and 4) narratives relating to 69 critical incidents gathered during recurrent visits over a period of ten weeks (9 nurses). Content analysis, as outlined in grounded theory, was applied. Results: The 40 nursing staff made their observations of the participants by conducting go-along interviews while they worked in the surgical field. The group of nurses comprised of 20 females and 4 males, age-ranged between 21-49 years of age, and their nursing experience ranged from 1-28 years. From our analysis, nurses verified patients’ pain by using double- and triple-control methods to document and record it, thus managing pain by administrative procedures rather than being proactive in providing pain relief. Therefore, communication and information about the patients’ pain and subsequent treatment of postoperative pain caused delays that may hamper the adequate use of available analgesics for pain relief. Levels of experience in communicating between nurses, other professionals, and patients were a main cause of delays in treating and managing pain. Conclusion: The complex communication system that would improve the communication ways leads to better standards of practice and quality of care.

  • 6.
    Chatchumni, Manaporn
    et al.
    Rangsit University, Thailand .
    Namvongprom, Ampaporn
    Rangsit University, Thailand .
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Röda Korsets Högskola, Avdelningen Vård och Omvårdnad.
    Mazaheri, Monir
    Röda Korsets Högskola, Avdelningen Vård och Omvårdnad.
    Treating without Seeing: Pain Management Practice in a Thai Context2016Ingår i: Pain Research & Management, ISSN 1203-6765, E-ISSN 1918-1523, artikel-id 9580626Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Pain management is a core nursing function, and it plays a key role in postoperative care. It is important to understand the cultural context of nursing practices and how this affects effective pain management. The aim of this study was to describe the professional and cultural framework within which pain management is practiced on a Thai surgical ward. Spradley’s ethnographic methodology was used. Data were collected through 98.5 hours of field observations and interviews at a surgical ward in Thailand. Three themes were constructed that describe the way Thai nurses practiced pain management: (i) complex communications system to address pain and to respond to it, (ii) the essence of Thai-ness, and (iii) a passive approach to pain management. The results indicate that, in the response to discomfort and pain, better pain management will result if there is a shift from functional to patient-centered care. The nursing culture needs to be further researched and discussed, in order to set priorities in line with the goals of national and international organizations for improving postoperative care and promoting patient comfort

  • 7.
    Chatchumni, Manaporn
    et al.
    Rangsit University.
    Namvongprom, Ampaporn
    Rangsit University .
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Röda Korsets Högskola, Avdelningen Vård och Omvårdnad.
    Mazaheri, Monir
    Röda Korsets Högskola, Avdelningen Vård och Omvårdnad.
    Using Critical Incident Technique to understand pain management situations in Thailand2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Nursing care is an important concern in the field of pain management as it addresses situated efforts to achieve a person-centered care in pain management. Although it is clear that the effectiveness of the pain management practice needs to be improved, there is limited knowledge about the pain management practices of Thai nurses. This study address if Critical Incident Technique be a used to increase our understanding of Pain management in a Thai context.

    Methods: Critical Incident Technique was used to explore postoperative pain management provided by nurses in a surgical ward in Thailand. A purposive sample of nine registered nurses over a five-week period using a semi-structured interview guide were conducted and collected. 

    Findings: All 69 situations were used to illustrate the successful and unsuccessful aspects of managing postoperative pain, and included Engagement is a manner of commitments, Availability is characteristic in the practicalities of managing pain for the patients, and Imbalance is being inconsistency between the patients' needs and nurses maintain their undertaking routines. 

    Discussion: Nurses’ experience helped to grasp and understand how nurses treat pain in the postoperative setting; this study was conducted in order to further the understanding of this topic. The result show that Critical Incident Technique can serve to expand our knowledge how existing guidelines are facilitated by nurses. Further, the knowledge gained can serve as foundation to development of new nursing guidelines and/or policies in pain management, including improving nursing skills and education programs in pain management settings. 

  • 8.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Att lära sig vårda på äldre dar2010Ingår i: Vårdpedagogiska utmaningar / [ed] Sonia Bentling & Bosse Jonsson, Stockholm: Liber, 2010, s. 248-266Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 9.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Institute of Health Care Pedagogics Institutionen för vårdpedagogik, University of Gothenburg.
    Den diplomatiska punkten: maskulinitet som kroppsligt identitetsskapande projekt i svensk sjuksköterskeutbildning2002Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 10.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Röda Korsets Högskola, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Det subversiva arvet: Global Omvårdnad och relationer till vetenskapliga doktriner – en personlig betraktelse2018Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 11. Eriksson, Henrik
    Distanseringen från omsorg2003Ingår i: Manlighetens många ansikten: fäder, feminister, frisörer och andra män / [ed] Thomas Johansson, Jari Kuosmanen, Malmö: Liber, 2003, s. 103-121Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 12.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Röda Korsets Högskola, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Förutsättningar för omvårdnad: genus2019Ingår i: Omvårdnadens grunder: perspektiv och förhållningsätt / [ed] Febe Friberg & Joakim Öhlén, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2019, 3, s. 337-357Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 13.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Röda Korsets Högskola, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Intimitetens villkor i vårdandet2017Ingår i: Genusperspektiv på vård och omvårdnad / [ed] Helén Strömberg & Henrik Eriksson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, 3, s. 71-86Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 14.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Intimitetens villkor i vårdandet2010Ingår i: Genusperspektiv på vård och omvårdnad / [ed] Helén Strömberg och Henrik Eriksson, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2010, 2.utök.uppl., s. 77-91Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 15. Eriksson, Henrik
    Kontrasternas Retorik -annanhet, undfallenhet, manlighet2004Ingår i: Retorikdagen 22 april. Södertörns Högskola., 2004Konferensbidrag (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 16.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Röda Korsets Högskola.
    Maskuliniteter: Vårdande män - om mod, maskulinitet och genusyrsel2013Ingår i: Genusyrsel & normuppror: En antologi om vård, värderingar och jämställda löner / [ed] Maria Ejd, Stockholm: Vårdförbundet , 2013, s. 73-88Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 17.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Röda Korsets Högskola, Avdelningen Vård och Omvårdnad.
    När omvårdnaden blir ett med tekniken2016Ingår i: Äldre i Centrum, ISSN 1653-3585, nr 4, s. 34-37Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den pågående sammanflätningen av människa och teknik kommer att ge ett mångfasetterat vårdande, med utgångspunkt i både vardag och science fiction. Omvårdnad kan äga rum i virtuella miljöer, där den som vårdar är en robot och den som vårdas kan vara ihopväxt med tekniken. Det skriver omvårdnadsprofessorn Henrik Eriksson.

  • 18.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd.
    Om kulturens manlighetsdressyr1999Ingår i: Locus, ISSN 1100-3197, nr 3, s. 57-60Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 19.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Röda Korsets Högskola, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Omvårdnad i ett historiskt perspektiv: framväxt2019Ingår i: Omvårdnadens grunder: perspektiv och förhållningsätt / [ed] Febe Friberg & Joakim Öhlén, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2019, 3, s. 33-60Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 20.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för vård- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Skutt, Skalman and Bamse: Conformity and gender vertigo in the educational system2004Ingår i: Karolinska institutet's 7TH Educational Congress, Stockholm, Mars 24, 2004: Programme and abstracts, Stockholm: Karolinska institutet , 2004, s. 45-Konferensbidrag (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 21.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences.
    St: Olaf Och Liberal arts: reflektioner över en stipendievistelse i Minnesota2006Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 22.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Velourmannen fortsätter att spöka2005Ingår i: Tidningen Alba, ISSN 1403-5448, nr 3Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 23.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Röda Korsets Högskola.
    Vårdvetenskap för en postmodern tid2014Ingår i: Vårdvetenskap och postmodernitet: en introduktion / [ed] Henrik Eriksson, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2014, 1, s. 29-48Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 24.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Röda Korsets Högskola.
    Vårdvetenskap och postmodernitet: en introduktion2014Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Postmodernitet kan beskrivas både som en reaktion på modern kunskap och en tidsålder som vi i en allt snabbare takt är på väg in i. Oavsett innebörd är postmoderniteten fylld av genomgripande reflektioner och konsekvenser för vad det innebär att vara människa. I sådana reflektioner finns en kraft som kan föra omvårdnad och vårdvetenskap framåt.

    Den postmoderna analysen i boken belyser hur omvårdnad ofrånkomligt är kopplat till det komplexa och föränderliga samhälle vi lever i. Omvårdnad och vårdvetenskap rör sig oupphörligen mot ett nytt centrum där det moderna projektets skarpa gränser mellan natur-kultur, man-kvinna, människa-maskin succesivt luckras upp. Kort sagt, helt nya sätt att tänka och helt ny kunskap.

    Tillkomsten av en cyberrymd har möjliggjort andra omvårdnadsrelationer som en alltmer integrerad del av vardagen. Människor möts och vårdar varandra i cyberrymden och i alltfler sammanhang är den som vårdar, eller den som blir vårdad, inte längre självklart av "kött och blod".

    Boken är avsedd för de som bedriver akademiska studier i vårdvetenskap, omvårdnad eller närliggande områden. Den vänder sig också till yrkesverksamma inom vårdområdet men även till tjänstemän och andra beslutsfattare som vill skaffa sig en bred orientering om vilka trender som är i antågande.

  • 25.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Röda Korsets Högskola.
    Vårdvetenskapliga berättelser – möjligheter och utmaningar …|i det postmoderna vårdandet2014Ingår i: Vårdvetenskap och postmodernitet: en introduktion / [ed] Henrik Eriksson, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2014, 1, s. 189-212Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 26.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Röda Korsets Högskola, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    What is nursing? Nursing as the science of human life in a postmodern era: Clues from the past to understand the road ahead2018Ingår i: Nordic journal of nursing research, ISSN 2057-1585, E-ISSN 2057-1593, Vol. 38, nr 3, s. 117-118Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 27.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    et al.
    Röda Korsets Högskola.
    Christiansen, Mats
    Division of Nursing, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences, and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Holmgren, Jessica
    Röda Korsets Högskola.
    Engström, Annica
    School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Mälardalen University, Västerås.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, University of Gävle, Gävle.
    Nursing under the skin: a netnographic study of metaphors and meanings in nursing tattoos2014Ingår i: Nursing Inquiry, ISSN 1320-7881, E-ISSN 1440-1800, Vol. 21, nr 4, s. 318-326Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of this study were to present themes in nursing motifs as depicted in tattoos and to describe how it reflects upon nursing in popular culture as well as within professional nursing culture. An archival and cross-sectional observational study was conducted online to search for images of nursing tattoos that were freely available, by utilizing the netnographic methodology. The 400 images were analyzed in a process that consisted of four analytical steps focusing on metaphors and meanings in the tattoos. The findings present four themes: angels of mercy and domination; hegemonic nursing technology; embodying the corps; and nurses within the belly of the monster. The tattoos serve as a mirror of popular culture and the professional culture of nurses and nursing practice within the context of body art. Body art policy statements have been included in nursing personnel dress code policies. Usually these policies prohibit tattoos that are sexist, symbolize sex or could contribute and reproduce racial oppression. The results show that the tattoos can be interpreted according to several layers of meanings in relation to such policies. We therefore stress that this is an area highly relevant for further analyses in nursing research.

  • 28.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    et al.
    Röda Korsets Högskola, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Dahlborg-Lyckhage, Elisabeth
    Högskolan Väst.
    Om Genus - introduktion2017Ingår i: Genusperspektiv på vård och omvårdnad / [ed] Helén Strömberg och Henrik Eriksson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, 3, s. 15-30Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 29.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    et al.
    Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences, Mälardalen University.
    Pringle, Keith
    3Department of Social Sciences Mälardalen University;Department of Applied Social Sciences, London Metropolitan University.
    Sandberg, Jonas
    1Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences, Mälardalen University; Department of Health Care Sciences, Ersta Sköndal University College.
    It feels like a defoliation: Older men’s notions of informal support as primary caregivers2008Ingår i: Norma, ISSN 1890-2138, E-ISSN 1890-2146, Vol. 3, nr 1, s. 48-61Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 30.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    et al.
    Röda Korsets Högskola, Avdelningen Vård och Omvårdnad.
    Salzmann-Ericson, Martin
    Gävle Högskola, University of Gävle.
    Twitter discussions about the predicaments of robots in geriatric nursing: forecast of nursing robotics in aged care2018Ingår i: Contemporary Nurse: health care across the lifespan, ISSN 1037-6178, E-ISSN 1839-3535, Vol. 54, nr 1, s. 97-107Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: People use social media to express perceptions, attitudes and a wide range of concerns regarding human life. Aim: This study aims at analysing the ongoing discussions on the internet microblog Twitter and offers some coming predicaments regarding developments in geriatric nursing regarding nursing robots. Methods: Data were retrospectively collected from Twitter. 1322 mentions were included in the final analyses, where principles of interpreting data by using netnography were utilized. Results: Many ideas are presented expressing functional, psychological and social aspects of robots in nursing care. Most postings come from metropolitan cities around the globe. The discussion focuses on market-driven, science fiction solutions for aged care. Twitter users overall seem to be positive using various nursing robots in aged care. These discussions offer a window into the attitudes and ideas of this group of users. Conclusion: We suggest that monitoring Twitter discussions on social media can provide valuable insights into current attitudes as well as forecast coming trends.

  • 31.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    et al.
    Röda Korsets Högskola.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Magnus
    Dalarna Högskola.
    Pringle, Keith
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Virtual Invisible Men: Privacy and invisibility as forms of privilege in online venues for fathers during early parenthood2014Ingår i: Culture, Society and Masculinities, ISSN 1941-5583, E-ISSN 1941-5591, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 52-68Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 32.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    et al.
    Röda Korsets Högskola, Avdelningen Vård och Omvårdnad.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv.
    Cyber nursing: a conceptual framework2016Ingår i: Journal of Research in Nursing, ISSN 1744-9871, E-ISSN 1744-988X, Vol. 21, nr 7, s. 505-514Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There have been few attempts to express in words and conceptualise ‘the Internet’ and ‘health’ within a framework. The aim of this study was to present a conceptual framework concerning virtual self-care and online caring. The results show that the concepts of virtual communities, virtual self-care and torrenting frame these very specific interactions and environments and that the concepts of ‘keyboard cowboy’ ‘cyber aid’ and ‘health-interests trader’stipulate different ways in which to express expertise in cyber nursing. Alongside cyber bullying, cyber nursing is also present in virtual arenas. Nursing researchers need to explore and monitor cyber nursing activities using concepts developed within the field of nursing.

  • 33.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    et al.
    Röda Korsets Högskola. Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Eskilstuna.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    Oslo University Hospital, Ullevål, Division of Mental Health and Addiction, Department of Acute Psychiatry, Oslo, Norway.
    Cyber nursing—Health ‘experts’ approaches in the post-modern era of virtual performances: A nethnography study2013Ingår i: International Journal of Nursing Studies, ISSN 0020-7489, E-ISSN 1873-491X, Vol. 50, nr 3, s. 335-344Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The imperative to gather information online and to become an ‘expert’ by locating effective advice for oneself and others is a fairly new support phenomenon in relation to health advice. The creation of new positions for health ‘experts’ within the space of the Internet has been addressed as a cybernursing activity. A focused analysis of communication in health forums might give insight into the new roles that are available for health experts in cyberspace.

    Aim

    The aim of this study is to describe approaches to being an ‘expert’ in lifestyle health choice forums on the Internet and to elaborate on the communicative performances that take place in the forums.

    Method

    An archival and cross-sectional observational forum study was undertaken using principles for conducting ethnographic research online. 2640 pages of data from two health Internet forums were gathered and analyzed.

    Findings

    The results reveal three distinctive types of experts that emerge in the forums: (1) those that build their expertise by creating a presence in the forum based on lengthy and frequent postings, (2) those who build a presence through reciprocal exchanges with individual posters with questions or concerns, and (3) those who build expertise around a “life long learning” perspective based on logic and reason.

    Discussion

    The results suggest that experts not only co-exist in the forums, but more importantly they reinforce each others’ positions. This effect is central; alongside one another, the posts of the three types of experts we identify constitute a whole for those seeking the forum for advice and support. Users are provided with strong opinions and advice, support and Socratic reasoning, and a problem-oriented approach. The Internet is now an integral part of everyday living, not least of which among those who seek and offer support in cyberspace. As such, cyber nursing has become an important activity to monitor, and formal health care professionals and nursing researchers must stay abreast of developments.

  • 34.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mälardalens University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Eskilstuna.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    Department of Acute Psychiatry, Division of Mental Health and Addiction, Oslo University Hospital, Ullevål, Oslo.
    Supporting a caring fatherhood in cyberspace: an analysis of communication about caring within an online forum for fathers2013Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 27, nr 1, s. 63-69Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:  Today’s parents seek out social support on the Internet. A key motivation behind the choice to go online is the need for more experience based information. In recent years, new fathers have increasingly taken on an active parental role. Men’s support for their caring activities for infants on the Internet needs attention.

    Aim:  The aim was to describe communication about caring activities for infants among men who visited an Internet-based forum for fathers and elaborate on the dimensions of support available in the forum.

    Method:  An archival and cross-sectional observational forum study was undertaken using principles for conducting ethnographic research online: “nethnography”. A total of 1203 pages of data from an Internet forum for fathers were gathered and analysed.

    Result:  Support for a caring fatherhood in cyberspace can be understood as fathers’ communicating encouragement, confirmation and advice. The findings show that important ways of providing support through the forum included a reciprocal sharing of concerns – how to be a better father – in relation to caring for an infant. Concerns for their child’s well-being and shared feelings of joy and distress in everyday life were recurrent supportive themes in the communication. Information gained from contacting others in similar situations is one important reason for the fathers’ use of the Internet.

    Discussion:  Support offered in this kind of forum can be considered as a complement to formal support. Professionals can use it to provide choices for fathers who are developing themselves as caregivers without downplaying the parental support offered by formal health care regimes.

    Further research:  Online support will probably be one of the main supporting strategies for fathers in Scandinavia. Caring and nursing researchers need to closely monitor support activities that develop, and over time, as these ill likely become an important source of support for people.

  • 35.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    et al.
    Röda Korsets Högskola, Avdelningen Vård och Omvårdnad.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv.
    The digital generation and nursing robotics: A netnographic study about nursing care robots posted on social media2017Ingår i: Nursing Inquiry, ISSN 1320-7881, E-ISSN 1440-1800, Vol. 4, nr 2, artikel-id e12165Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to present the functionality and design of nursing care robots as depicted in pictures posted on social media. A netnographic study was conducted using social media postings over a period of 3 years. One hundred and Seventy-two images were analyzed using netnographic methodology. The findings show that nursing care robots exist in various designs and functionalities, all with a common denominator of supporting the care of one’s own and others’ health and/or well-being as a main function. The results also show that functionality and design are influenced by recent popular sci-fi/cartoon contexts as portrayed in blockbuster movies, for example. Robots’designs seem more influenced by popular sci-fi/cartoon culture than professional nursing culture. We therefore stress that it is relevant for nursing researchers to critically reflect upon the development of nursing care robots as a thoughtful discussion about embracing technology also might generate a range of epistemological possibilities when entering a postmodern era of science and practice.

  • 36.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    et al.
    Röda Korsets Högskola, Avdelningen Vård och Omvårdnad.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Turning to monster to learn about humanity: presentation of findings from caring monsters - the research project2015Ingår i: Abstract Book Human Rights and Health and the Astrid Janzon Symposium: The Swedish Red Cross University College, Stockholm 26-27th November 2015 : Oral sessions and Poster sessions, Stockholm, 2015, Vol. 1, s. 22-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Popular culture; literature, movies and comics, is full of monsters. Monsters that both scare and amuse. Through history people has been fascinated, feared and amused by the idea of mysterious creatures, the monsters. Passing stories and constructing the “monsters” are part of all cultures and over times, although the representation of monsters are projected in variance over time and are historical and contextual bounded. Just as monsters are the binary opposition of the ‘good citizen’, monsters also perform as embodied representations of the “Other”. Monster is therefore best understood as embodiment of difference, a breaker of categories and a resistant other. Monsters are “tricksters” challenging our coding of the world by challenging our knowledge. The monster ask us how we as humans perceive the world and about our perception of difference. The aim of this project is to explore the caring activities of monsters in popular culture. The project will catalog monsters’ caring activities around the globe and analyze why, when and under what circumstances monster characters actually do care. In this presentation the initial analyzes of data gathered from the project website (http://www.caringmonsters.com/) will be presented. The initial readings based on a straight forward content analysis of why monsters sometimes go out of character and suddenly engage in some kind of caring activities will be presented. The result will contribute to a critical discussion of the impact of caring and the ethics of caring from which we could learn about humanity, when reflecting upon it from an “outside” and monstrous perspective.

  • 37.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    et al.
    Röda Korsets Högskola, Avdelningen Vård och Omvårdnad.
    Salzmann-Eriksson, Martin
    Department of Health and Caring Sciences at the University of Gävle .
    Future Challenges of Robotics and Artificial Intelligence in Nursing: What Can We Learn from Monsters in Popular Culture?2016Ingår i: The Permanente Journal, ISSN 1552-5767, E-ISSN 1552-5775, Vol. 20, nr 3, artikel-id 15-243Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It is highly likely that artificial intelligence (AI) will be implemented in nursing robotics in various forms, both in medical and surgical robotic instruments, but also as different types of droids and humanoids, physical reinforcements, and also animal/pet robots. Exploring and discussing AI and robotics in nursing and health care before these tools become commonplace is of great importance. We propose that monsters in popular culture might be studied with the hope of learning about situations and relationships that generate empathic capacities in their monstrous existences. The aim of the article is to introduce the theoretical framework and assumptions behind this idea. Both robots and monsters are posthuman creations. The knowledge we present here gives ideas about how nursing science can address the postmodern, technologic, and global world to come. Monsters therefore serve as an entrance to explore technologic innovations such as AI. Analyzing when and why monsters step out of character can provide important insights into the conceptualization of caring and nursing as a science, which is important for discussing these empathic protocols, as well as more general insight into human knowledge. The relationship between caring, monsters, robotics, and AI is not as farfetched as it might seem at first glance.

  • 38.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    et al.
    Röda Korsets Högskola, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Sandberg, Jonas
    Jönköping University.
    Röster från sidlinjen - former och normer i anhörigspelet2017Ingår i: Genusperspektiv på vård och omvårdnad / [ed] Helén Strömberg & Henrik Eriksson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, 3, s. 149-166-Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 39.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Sandberg, Jonas
    Röster från Sidlinjen: former och normer i anhörigspelet2010Ingår i: Genusperspektiv på vård och omvårdnad / [ed] Helén Strömberg och Henrik Eriksson, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2010, 2. utök. uppl., s. 151-167Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 40.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    et al.
    Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences, Mälardalen University, Eskilstuna.
    Sandberg, Jonas
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för vård- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Transitions in men´s caring identities: from home-based care to nursing home placement.2008Ingår i: International Journal of Older People Nursing, ISSN 1748-3735, E-ISSN 1748-3743, Vol. 3, nr 2, s. 131-137Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 41.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mälardalens University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Eskilstuna.
    Sandberg, Jonas
    School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University.
    Hellström, Ingrid
    Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Linköping University.
    Experiences of long-term home care as an informal caregiver to a spouse: gendered meanings in everyday life for female carers2013Ingår i: International Journal of Older People Nursing, ISSN 1748-3743, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 159-165Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims and objectives.  In this article, we explore the gender aspects of long-term caregiving from the perspective of women providing home care for a spouse suffering from dementia.

    Background.  One of the most common circumstances in which a woman gradually steps into a long-term caregiver role at home involves caring for a spouse suffering from dementia. Little attention has been paid to examining the experiences and motivations of such caregivers from a feminist perspective.

    Methods.  Twelve women, all of whom were informal caregivers to a partner suffering from dementia, were interviewed on the following themes: the home, their partner’s disease, everyday life, their relationship and autonomy. The results of these interviews were analysed in relation to gender identity and social power structures using a feminist perspective.

    Results.  The findings of this study show that the informants frequently reflected on their caregiving activities in terms of both general and heteronormative expectations. The results suggest that the process of heteropolarisation in these cases can be an understood as a consequence of both the spouse’s illness and the resulting caring duties. Also, the results suggest that the act of caring leads to introspections concerning perceived ‘shortcomings’ as a caregiver. Finally, the results indicate that it is important to recognise when the need for support in day-to-day caring is downplayed.

    Conclusions.  Women view their caregiving role and responsibilities as paramount; their other duties, including caring for themselves, are deemed less important. We stress that the intense commitment and responsibilities that women experience in their day-to-day caring must be acknowledged and that it is important for healthcare professionals to find mechanisms for providing choices for female caregivers without neglecting their moral concerns.

    Implications for practice.  Female carers face difficulties in always living up to gendered standards and this need to be considered when evaluating policies and practices for family carers.

  • 42. Eriksson, Henrik
    et al.
    Sandberg, Jonas
    Holmgren, Jessica
    Pringle, Keith
    His Helping hands: adult daughter's perceptions' of fathers with caregiving responsibility2013Ingår i: European Journal of Social Work, ISSN 1369-1457, E-ISSN 1468-2664, Vol. 16, nr 2, s. 235-248Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Women's position as informal carers has been taken for granted in social policy and social professions, while relatively few discussions have elaborated on caring as a later life activity for men and the impact on family care. This study explores the processes connected to informal caregiving in later life through the position of adult daughters of older fathers engaged with long-term caregiving responsibilities for a partner. A sample of eight daughters, with fathers having primary caregiving responsibility for their ill partners was recruited and in-depth interviews were carried out and analysed according to qualitative procedures. The daughters' descriptions of their relationships with their fathers show that being an older man who engages in caring can have a positive outcome on relations. Even if some of the daughters have doubts about their fathers “masculine authenticity”, all of them appear to cherish “his helping hands” as a carer and closer more intimate relationships with their fathers. Caring for an old and frail spouse may potentially present alternative ways of being a man beyond traditional ‘male activities’ and that caring might also sometimes involve a re-construction of gender identities. It is suggested that social work professionals may use a gendered understanding to assess and work strategically with daughters and other family members who support caring fathers.

  • 43.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd.
    Stangvik-Urbán, Lena
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd.
    Att utbilda sig till sjuksköterska: Ett genusperspektiv på lärares och studenters beskrivningar av utbildningen2004Ingår i: Vård i Norden, ISSN 0107-4083, E-ISSN 1890-4238, Vol. 24, nr 2, s. 39-41Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 44.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    et al.
    Röda Korsets Högskola, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Strömberg, HelénUmeå Universitet.
    Genusperspektiv på vård och omvårdnad2017Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det som vanligen benämns genusfrågor är inte bara en angelägenhet för akademin och forskare, utan begreppet diskuteras i såväl politisk som populärvetenskaplig debatt.

    Genusrelaterade, feministiska  och/eller jämställdhetsfrågor är viktiga för samhället och för individer i många olika sammanhang. Men vad är egentligen genus och vad menas med att ha ett genusperspektiv? På vilket sätt kan genus vara en utgångspunkt när det talas om vård och omvårdnad som sträcker sig bortom dagsaktuella politiska utfästelser och olika myndigheters pågående jämställdhetsarbete?

    Genusperspektiv på vård och omvårdnad problematiserar vårdandet, dess handlingar, relationer och processer samt hälso-och sjukvårdens institutioner ur olika genusteoretiska perspektiv.

  • 45.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Strömberg, Helén
    Genusperspektiv på vård och omvårdnad2010Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 46.
    Hanpatchaiyakul, Kulnaree
    et al.
    School of Health Care and Social Welfare, Mälardalen University; Basic Concept of Nursing Practice Department, Boromarajonani College of Nursing Changwat Nonthaburi, Nonthaburi, Thailand.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Röda Korsets Högskola. School of Health Care and Social Welfare, Mälardalen University.
    Kijsompon, Jureerat
    Praboromarajchanok Institute for Health Workforce Development (PIHWD), Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi, Thailand.
    Östlund, Gunnel
    School of Health Care and Social Welfare, Mälardalen University.
    Thai men’s experiences of alcohol addiction and treatment2014Ingår i: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 7, s. 23712-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 47.
    Hanpatchaiyakul, Kulnaree
    et al.
    Boromarajonani College of Nursing, Changwat Nonthaburi, Thailand.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Röda Korsets Högskola, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Kijsomporn, Jureerat
    Praboromarajchanok Institute for Health Workforce Development, Ministry of Public Health, Thailand.
    Gunnel, Östlund
    School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Malardalen University.
    Lived Experience of Thai Women with Alcohol Addiction2017Ingår i: Asian Nursing Research, ISSN 1976-1317, Vol. 11, nr 4, s. 304-310Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study explores the lived experiences of Thai women in relation to alcohol addiction in treatment. Methods: Twelve women aged 20 to 65 years, were participated. The participants were recruited from two special hospitals and one outpatient clinic in a general hospital. Descriptive phenomenology was applied to analyze the transcripts of the individual interviews. Result: The explored phenomenon of Thai women experiencing alcohol addiction included four essential aspects, (1) feeling inferior and worthless (2) feeling physically and emotionally hurt, (3) fearing physical deterioration and premature death, and (4) feeling superior and powerful. Through these different aspects of Thai women's lived experiences, the following essence was synthesized. The essence of the lived experience of alcohol addiction among the studied Thai women was ambivalence between feeling inferior and worthless and feeling superior and powerful when acting as a man. Drinking alcohol lessened life's difficulties and fears; for example, of violence, bodily demolition, premature death and marginalization from family and society. Conclusion: Thai women who experience alcohol addiction are treated with gender-related double standards when trying to undo gender traditional roles. Their marginalization from family and society deepens making them even more vulnerable to the positive side effects of alcohol drinking.

  • 48.
    Hanpatchaiyakul, Kulnaree
    et al.
    School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Mälardalen University; Basic Concept of Nursing Practice Department, Boromarajonani College of Nursing Changwat Nonthaburi, Nonthaburi, Thailand.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Röda Korsets Högskola, Avdelningen Vård och Omvårdnad.
    Kijsomporn, Jureerat
    Praboromarajchanok Institute for Health Workforce Development, Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi, Thailand.
    Östlund, Gunnel
    School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Mälardalen University.
    Barriers to successful treatment of alcohol addiction as perceived by healthcare professionals in Thailand: a Delphi study about obstacles and improvement suggestions2016Ingår i: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 9, artikel-id 31738Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Many Thai people experiencing alcohol addiction do not seek help, and those who do often have inadequate access to treatment. There are few research studies focusing on alcohol addiction treatment in Thailand.

    Objective: The purpose of the current study was to identify barriers to the treatment of alcohol addiction and to collect experts’ suggestions for improving treatment in Thailand. The Delphi technique was used to achieve consensual agreement among an expert panel within the field of alcohol addiction and treatment.

    Design: Three rounds of a Delphi survey were completed by a panel of experts in alcohol addiction, including physicians, nurses, social workers, psychologists, healthcare officers, and an Alcoholics Anonymous member. The open-ended answers provided by 34 experts in the first round resulted in 60 statements, which were later grouped into three themes. After three rounds of questionnaires, 51 statements were accepted as consensus.

    Results: Thirty-two experts participated in all three Delphi rounds. Over 80% of participants were particularly concerned about five obstacles to alcohol addiction treatment. The majority of suggestions from the expert panel were related to patients’ right to treatment and the national policy for reducing the negative effects of alcohol. According to the results of the present study, the experts suggested that the treatment of alcohol addiction should be continuous from primary care to tertiary care, and convenient pathways should be established in healthcare services. The experts would also like to increase the number of healthcare providers and improve their knowledge and skills in working with people experiencing alcohol addiction.

    Conclusions: Equal rights to health and treatment for people experiencing alcohol addiction in Thailand require policy improvements, as well as acceptance and awareness of alcohol addiction from both the public and policymakers.

  • 49.
    Hanpatchaiyakul, Kulnaree
    et al.
    School of Health Care and Social Welfare, Mälardalen University; Boromarajonani College of Nursing Changwat Nonthaburi, Thailand.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Röda Korsets Högskola, Avdelningen Vård och Omvårdnad.
    Kijsomporn, Jureerat
    Praboromarajchanok Institute for Health Workforce Development (PIHWD), Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi, Thailand.
    Östlund, Gunnel
    School of Health Care and Social Welfare, Mälardalen University .
    Healthcare providers' experiences of working with alcohol addiction treatment in Thailand2016Ingår i: Contemporary Nurse: health care across the lifespan, ISSN 1037-6178, E-ISSN 1839-3535, Vol. 52, nr 1, s. 59-73Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The high prevalence of alcohol consumption, together with its associated health risk factors, has long-term negative impacts on both society and the economy in Thailand.

    AIM: The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of healthcare providers working with people experiencing alcohol addiction and the treatment programs in a Thai hospital.

    METHODS: Qualitative study was applied in this study by conducting focus group interviews with 32 interdisciplinary healthcare providers, most of which were nurses. Content analysis was applied to analyze the verbatim-transcribed data.

    FINDINGS: Two main topics emerged: (1) the collaborative practices related to alcohol treatment, and (2) the fit of the program, including how the treatment program functions. Obstacles were identified and formulated from several sub-categories.

    CONCLUSIONS: The findings included obstacles linked to the imported (Western) program and the patriarchal structure in Thai culture, which seem to intersect and reinforce each other.

  • 50.
    Hanpatchaiyakul, Somkuan
    et al.
    Praboromarajchanok Institute for Health Workforce Development, Ministry of Public Health, Thailand.
    Kijsomporn, Jureerat
    Praboromarajchanok Institute for Health Workforce Development, Ministry of Public Health, Thailand.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Röda Korsets Högskola. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Balancing on a Wire: Self-care among Thai Immigrants in Washington D.C.2012Ingår i: Journal of Health Science, ISSN 0858-4923, Vol. 21, nr 3, s. 423-435Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This qualitative study focused on the experiences of Thai immigrants settling in the District of Columbia, Washington D.C.. Data included indepth interviews in February - June 2005. The results suggest that most immigrants did not have health insurance. This posed the question how they coped when they developed an illness? The results showed they relied on self-care practices such as buying drug, using traditional Chinese medicine or acupuncture, visiting a Thai doctor, and having medicine sent from Thailand. Hospital-based care was sought only in severe illness. Without health insurance, they were forced to pay for their treatment in instalments. The Thai immigrants’ experiences with the US health care system were often positive. For example they felt the doctor-patient relationship was often very good. The doctor provided more information to patients than those in Thailand, such as explaining the cause of their illness, laboratory result, treatment, and practice. They also felt that in the US patients could share their opinion with the doctors, who allowed more time to communicate with patients and that patient records were well managed. The health personnel were also rated highly and as friendly and providing good patient care. The participants felt the worst parts of the US health system were 1) doctors could not make decisions for their patients; 2) the cost of health care in the US was too high. Recommendations emerging from the study include: 1) Thai immigrants, agencies of the Thai Government and some Thai organizations, such as temples, should share their resources, for example: 1) to establish foundations for emergency case; 2) to strengthen health education and information among Thai Immigrants; 3) to encourage Thai people living abroad to form a stronger network so they can access important health-related information.

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