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  • 1.
    Christidis, Maria
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Health Sciences.
    A Review of International Nursing-related Vocational and Educational Training on the issue of integrated teaching2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The review focus was to systematize, describe and critically analyze previous international research on school-based integrated teaching for vocational knowing in nursing-related education in upper secondary and higher-level education. The review questions were: a) What kind of integration was conducted within a school context in nursing-related education? b) What in terms of vocational knowing was highlighted as a result in the studies through integrated teaching? c) What was the relation between study aim and analytical method for the vocational knowing that was highlighted?

    Summary of Work: Searches were conducted in two databases, EbscoHost, and ProQuest Social Sciences. Search terms ‘integrated teaching’, ‘vocational knowing’ and ‘nursing’, retrieved from the databases, were combined with “AND”. Search area was expanded by terms ‘education’, ‘curriculum’, ‘vocational’, and specified with ‘thematical integration’. Delimitations comprised admitted approaches of integration (Case Method, Problem-based Learning), and were set to scholarly, peer-reviewed articles. The first sorting comprised assessment of abstracts, while the second sorting comprised whole articles. Reference-lists of included studies were assessed for inclusion. Altogether, 14 studies were included and assessed for quality and coherence with Grade CerQual.

    Summary of Results:The results showed three types of integrated teaching, integration through embeddedness or streaks, problem-based learning, and between school and workplace; vocational knowing related to a professional and academic context; and there was a methodological significance for the type of vocational knowing highlighted in the studies.

    Discussion and Conclusions: Integrated teaching with professional connection was stressed as significant for vocational knowing, because of authenticity and meaningfulness. Vocational knowing of academic character required a professional contextualization for meaningfulness. The primary studies highlighted quantitative methodology as quality measure and by passed epistemological (constructivism and positivism) aspects. A quantitative method of approach was shown as the quality measure in primary studies. The notion of quality requires expansion with more qualitative studies, that focus on minor student groups and specific didactic situations for an in-depth understanding of integrated teaching and vocational knowing in nursing.

    Take-home Messages: Integrated teaching is an admitted didactical approach but highly significant for vocational knowing.

  • 2.
    Christidis, Maria
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Health Sciences. Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Integrated teaching for expanded vocational knowing: Studies in the Swedish upper secondary Health and social care program2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Integrated teaching is emphasized in Swedish upper secondary vocational education and training, for managing sociocultural and historical changes related to: a) increased demands on future competent health care workers, b) educational reforms, c) altered conditions for vocational teachers’ work, and d) vocational contextualization of teaching and learning content. However, national curricula from 1970, 1994, and 2011 recommend integrated teaching as a solution without any specific concretization of what integration could or should contribute with. Thus, the aim of this thesis was to explore the realization of integrated teaching and the vocational knowing made available by integration for students at the Swedish upper secondary Health and social care program, and partly for nursing students in higher education and training. The research questions attended to how integrated teaching is realized, and what vocational knowing is made available by integration.

    Theoretical point of departure was Cultural historical activity theory (CHAT), complemented with New literacy studies (NLS). The methodological framework included ethnographically inspired case studies, interviews, specifically semi-structured interviews and life-history interviews, and a systematic review. Research material was collected in 2012 and 2018. Analysis was performed with selected concepts from CHAT, and in one study also with concepts from NLS. In one study, i.e. the systematic review, GRADE CERQual was used for an assessment of confidence in the review findings.

    Study results showed that integrated teaching, regardless of composition and format, made available a vocational, a general, and an expanded vocational knowing. Also, vocational contextualization of school subjects was shown to be significant as an additional teaching and learning content and as mediational means between school and workplace.

    In conclusion, integrated teaching was shown to respond to the sociocultural and historical developments by making available for students an expanded vocational knowing. Also, vocational contextualization was shown to make possible for students learning knowing relevant for their future profession.

  • 3.
    Christidis, Maria
    Swedish Red Cross University, Department of Health Sciences. Stockholm University.
    Integrated teaching for vocational knowing: A systematic review of research on nursing-related vocational education and training2019In: Nordic Journal of Vocational Education and Training, E-ISSN 2242-458X, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 19-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim for this review was to systematize, describe and critically analyse previous research concerning school-based integrated teaching for vocational knowing in nursingrelated training in upper secondary and in higher level education. Searches were conducted in four databases, two specifically for Swedish hits, and two for international hits. Also, search was made in a Nordic journal on vocational education and training. References in included studies were also assessed for further inclusion of studies. Altogether, 14 studies were included and assessed for quality and coherence with GRADE CERQual. Review findings comprised three types of integrated teaching, through embeddedness or streaks, problem-based learning, and between school and workplace; vocational knowing relating to a professional and academic context; and methodological significance for the vocational knowing highlighted in the studies. In conclusion, the methodological approach typically used in the primary studies related to a quantitative approach, which was also discerned as quality measure. The primary studies brought forward a partial understanding of integrated teaching and vocational knowing, which is dependent on the methodological approach. In order to enhance understanding about the research topic, there is a need for more studies on integrated teaching utilizing a qualitative approach.

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  • 4.
    Christidis, Maria
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Health Sciences.
    Mötet med patienten2020In: Bettfysiologi: orofacial smärta och käkfunktion / [ed] Nikolaos Christidis, Stockholm: Gothia Fortbildning , 2020, p. 173-189Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kapitlet behandlar mötet med patienten och framhäver dels kommunikativa aspekter och dels etiska aspekter såsom integritet och medbestämmande.  Avslutningsvis behandlas upptaget av anamnes och status för behandling av patienten. 

  • 5.
    Christidis, Maria
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Health Sciences.
    Teaching Communication in Nursing Assistants Training on a Swedish Upper Secondary Health and Social Care Program2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Christidis, Maria
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Health Sciences.
    Teaching communication in nursing assistants training on a Swedish upper secondary Health and Social Care Program2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Christidis, Maria
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Health Sciences. Stockholm University.
    Tools for subject integrated teaching and the formation of vocational knowledge in one Swedish Health and Social Care Program2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the main study was to investigate subject integrated teaching in an upper-secondary Health and Social Care program and the vocational knowledge that was shaped in teaching. The aim of this presentation is to highlight a teacher-constructed case report as a tool for subject integration, the use of the tool for integration and the kind of vocational knowledge that is shaped through the use of the tool.

    The material was collected ethnographically and comprised of observation on teaching, with the case report as a base, during a theme unit called “Professional language”. The material further comprised of field-notes on teaching, interviews and informal discussions, sound-recording of teaching and material handed out during teaching. The material was analysed according to Activity-Theoretical concepts of actions, goals and tools.

    The results identifiedthat the case report had a vocational origin but had been modified to an educational context. This qualified the case report as a boundary object. It was used by a teacher of core-subjects in teaching to highlight content related to Swedish and to vocational subjects, but also content that related to the theme unit.

    In conclusion, the use of the teacher-constructed case report in subject integrated teaching helped shape additional vocational knowledge compared to subject-specific teaching.

  • 8.
    Christidis, Maria
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Health Sciences.
    Two Swedish PhD-programmes in Vocational Pedagogy  : Background, Aims and Strategies2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Christidis, Maria
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Health Sciences. Stockholm University.
    Vocational knowing in subject integrated teaching: A case study in a Swedish upper secondary health and social care program2019In: Learning, Culture and Social Interaction, ISSN 2210-6561, E-ISSN 2210-657X, Vol. 21, p. 21-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this case study was to investigate what vocational knowing was made available in subject-integrated teaching of four vocational subjects in a Swedish Health and Social Care Program (HSCP). The study was composed of two separate data collections, both ethnographic. The first data collection was performed in autumn 2012 on a theme unit called VIPS, with a group of students (16+), in a Swedish HSCP. Data comprised observations, field notes, and audio recordings of planning and teaching of the theme unit, informal discussions with teachers and students, handouts, a theme booklet, and student assignments. The second data collection was performed during spring 2018 in which life-history interviews focused on documentation were conducted with the teachers involved in the theme unit from 2012. Data comprised audio recordings and time lines. A theoretical framework and analytical work were performed with concepts from Cultural Historical Activity Theory, and from New Literacy Studies. The results indicate that the object in the teaching activity comprised vocational knowing in three areas: psychosis, ethics, and communication, and vocational literacy. Vocational contextualization of teaching was a necessary component that made available vocational knowing that contributed to the students' professional development.

  • 10.
    Christidis, Maria
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Health Sciences.
    Vocational knowledge in a Subject Integrated Form of Teaching at two Swedish Health and Social care Program2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11. Christidis, Maria
    Vård- och omsorgsarbete. 12013 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Christidis, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Ämnesintegrering på vård- och omsorgsprogrammet utifrån ett verksamhetsteoretiskt perspektiv2014Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The study investigated subject integrated teaching and vocational knowledge in one Health and Social Care program. The material was collected ethnographically, during a period of a school semester (5 months), and analysed according to the Activity-Theoretical concepts actions, goals and tools.

    The results identified five goals for subject integrated teaching: the legitimacy of Swedish as a school subject; a focus on linguistic prescriptivism; the identity of vocational subjects; a predominant medical focus in vocational subjects; and a professional language. Further six recurrent tools were identified: a fictional book; a teacher-prepared hand-out; a teacher-constructed case report; teacher-examples from health care; and linguistic rules. There was a theoretical kind of vocational knowledge with focus on language issues, on medical aspects of care, and on a professional language.

    In conclusion, subject integrated teaching contributed with more than each of the specific subjects contributed with and simultaneously tensions between goals representing different subjects were found. However, tools were shared between subjects.

  • 13.
    Christidis, Maria
    et al.
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Health Sciences.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Lärares samverkan för yrkeskunnande: Engl. translation: Teachers’ Cooperation for Vocational Knowing2017In: Yrkesdidaktikens mångfald / [ed] Andreas Fejes, Viveca Lindberg, Gun-Britt Wärvik, Stockholm: Lärarförlaget , 2017, 1Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Based on a study of curriculum integration in Swedish upper secondary education, at a Health and Social Care Programme (Christidis, 2014), the issue of this chapter is how general subjects can contribute to vocational knowing in the interaction between teachers and students. Inspired by an ethnographic approach, classroom observations, interviews and documents formed the data, and for the analysis concepts from activity theory were used. Main results were that teachers’ and students’ experiences used in teaching focused three actors’ perspectives: those of nurse-assistants’, patients’ and relatives’. These were expressed in subject specific as well as interdisciplinary teaching of general and vocational subjects. Using subject integration made it possible for both teachers and students to explore connections between the subjects. Furthermore, subject integration contributed to one of the main goals of the Health and Social Care Programme: to develop a holistic view of the human being.

  • 14.
    Christidis, Maria
    et al.
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Health Sciences. Stockholm University.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University.
    Subject-Integrated Teaching for Expanded Vocational Knowing and Everyday Situations in a Swedish Upper Secondary Health and Social Care Program2019In: Vocations and Learning, ISSN 1874-785X, E-ISSN 1874-7868, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 479-498Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to explore what subject-integrated teaching of vocational subjects, ethics and health care, contributed with in terms of vocational knowing. The case study was ethnographically inspired and followed a group of students (16 +) and their teachers in a Swedish Health and Social Care Program while they worked with a theme unit called Death for two weeks in autumn 2012. Data comprised observations, field notes, and audio recordings of the planning and teaching of the theme unit, informal discussions with teachers and students, handouts, a theme booklet, and student assignments. Analysis was based on concepts related to cultural historical activity theory, especially emphasizing rules, tools, actions, operations, and contradictions. Results showed three major objects emphasized in the teacher–student interaction and the tools chosen to support the subject-integrated teaching activity: vocational knowing related to vocational ethics, to everyday ethics, and argumentative skills. Manifestations of contradictions in the form of dilemmas related to the examples that teachers copied from a textbook. As these examples were mainly contextualized in everyday situations, and there are no formal ethical guidelines for nursing assistants on which teachers could rely on, teachers’ narratives were used to complement these examples. Students’ argumentative skills were emphasized and related to personal situations, in which ethical arguments for justification in vocationally relevant situations were made unclear.

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  • 15.
    Christidis, Maria
    et al.
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Health Sciences.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Vocational Literacy as means for Vocational Knowing related to Ethics in a Swedish Upper Secondary Health and Social Care Program2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The issue of this paper is to explore what vocational knowing is made available for students in Swedish upper secondary vocational education (16+) within the Health and Social Care program, with a specific focus on literacy-related vocational knowing framed by contextualized teaching (previously integration of subjects). A case study of contextualized teaching in a Swedish upper secondary school was followed ethnographically during autumn 2012 in the Health and Social Care program (year 2 of 3). Cultural-historical activity theory was used for analyzing what vocational knowing was made available and what literacy aspects that contributed to this. Teachers constructed a theme, Death, in order to work with ethical content relevant for nurse assistants. Ethical dilemmas and literacy practices (writing notes, reading aloud) were used as tools for enhancing sharing of different perspectives. The object of learning was identified as the ability to change perspectives and taking the other’s perspective in a dilemmatic situation related to caring.

  • 16.
    Christidis, Nikolaos
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Al-Moraissi, Essam Ahmed
    Thamar University, Yemen.
    Barjandi, Golnaz
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Svedenlöf, Johanna
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Jasim, Hajer
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Christidis, Maria
    Swedish Red Cross University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Collin, Malin
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Pharmacological Treatments of Temporomandibular Disorders: A Systematic Review Including a Network Meta-Analysis2023In: Drugs, ISSN 0012-6667, E-ISSN 1179-1950Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) comprise a cluster of conditions with a wide range of etiological factors that causes pain and discomfort in the masticatory muscles (TMD-M) and temporomandibular joints (TMD-J). More than 50% of the patients with TMD report regular usage of drugs. However, there is still no consensus, nor is there any evidence-based support for clinicians when choosing between different drugs. Therefore, this systematic review, including a network meta-analysis (NMA), aimed to evaluate the scientific evidence and discuss the pharmacological treatment options available to treat painful TMD.

    METHOD: An electronic search was undertaken to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating pharmacological treatments for TMD-M and/or TMD-J, published until 6 April 2023. Since only 11 articles could be used for an NMA regarding TMD-M, a narrative synthesis was also performed for all 40 included RCTs. The quality of evidence was rated according to Cochrane's tool for assessing risk of bias, while the certainty of evidence was rated according to Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE).

    RESULTS: When it comes to TMD-M, evidence arises for wet needling therapies with BTX-A, granisetron, and PRP as well as muscle relaxants. For TMD-J, evidence points toward pharmacological treatment approaches including non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and glucocorticosteriods (for inflammatory conditions) as well as hyaluronic acid and dextrose.

    CONCLUSIONS: The evidence clearly indicates that the pharmacological treatment approaches differ between TMD-M and TMD-J. Therefore, it is of great importance to first try to uncover each patient's individual and multifactorial etiology and then employ a multifaceted treatment strategy, including pharmacological treatment approaches.

  • 17. Christidis, Nikolaos
    et al.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    Helo, Helen
    Koj, Sandra
    Christidis, Maria
    Swedish Red Cross University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Swedish dental students’ clinical notes and reflections as part of a case-based examination: challenges for undergraduate education2023In: Medical Research Archives, ISSN 2375-1916, Vol. 11, no 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Clinical records are the basis for clinical reasoning, diagnostics, treatment planning, and management as well as for management of the patient and the outcome of the treatment, and therefore an important aspect of health professionals’ work. Several articles emphasize the importance of adequate and correct content in these records. Previous research shows that even health professionals need to improve the content and structure of their clinical records, for them to give the information needed for various needs. The focus of this article are the clinical records of undergraduate dental students. The aim of the study was to explore patterns of adequate and inadequate content in clinical notes of undergraduate dental students in their final year of education. Secondly, whether these results could provide insights for development of health professions education.

    Data comprised of 33 cased-based examinations collected during January 2020 at the University Dental Clinic, Department of Dental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, in Huddinge Sweden. Also, data included teachers’ assessment of these examinations. The texts were analyzed with thematic analysis.

    Analytical results showed three themes. The first theme, (i) Professional content knowledge, concerned information in patient history, status, diagnostics and treatment plan, and an information ambiguity. The theme also included the students' use of professional terminology and the choice of articles to support reflections. The second theme (ii) incomplete method of investigation involved the actual patient interview, but also students’ various misunderstandings of the template. The third theme was (iii) Academic formalities. This theme concerned students' understanding of the purpose of referencing and its function, but also a non-use of references, the use of irrelevant references, errors in the given citation style, and an incorrect structure of the text according to the template. 

    In conclusion, results showed the need for continuous training in clinical note-taking and reflections during dental students' professional education. In this training, teachers’ assessment is important for students' development of professional literacy and professional judgment. Also, a continuous reminder of science and proven experience as the basis for the profession which is also made visible through academic formalities.

  • 18.
    Christidis, Nikolaos
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Jounger, Sofia Louca
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Christidis, Maria
    Swedish Red Cross University, Department of Health Sciences. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Early steps towards professional clinical note-taking in a Swedish study programme in dentistry2022In: BMC Medical Education, E-ISSN 1472-6920, Vol. 22, no 1, article id 676Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Higher education tends to focus on academic writing only, instead of emphasizing that professional texts are also used as a basis for communication in contexts with a variety of participators. When it comes to clinical notes, research is scarce and focused on technology and informatics. Therefore, the aim was to explore dental students' clinical notes, and specifically which aspects of the clinical notes characterizes clinical notes that are not sufficient enough for professional purposes.

    Methods: The object of analysis was the student's written completion of a teacher constructed protocol regarding oral mucosa, the dental apparatus including pathology on tooth level, oral hygiene, and a validated international clinical examination protocol of the temporomandibular region. The study was framed within the New Literacy Studies approach, and the clinical notes were analyzed using thematic analysis.

    Results: Within the clinical notes three themes were identified; a) familiar content; b) familiar content in new context; and c) new content. The forms of notes could refer to either categorizational clinical notes or descriptive clinical notes. Most students were able to write acceptable clinical notes when the content was familiar, but as soon as the familiar content was in a new context the students had difficulties to write acceptable notes. When it comes to descriptive notes students suffered difficulties to write acceptable notes both when it came to familiar content, or familiar content in a new context.

    Conclusions: Taken together, the results indicate that students have difficulties writing acceptable notes when they are novices to the content or context, making their notes either insufficient, too short or even wrong for professional purposes. With this in mind, this study suggests that there is a need to strengthen the demands on sufficient professional quality in clinical notes and focus on clinical notes already in the early stages of the different medical educations.

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  • 19.
    Ho, Yuh-Shan
    et al.
    Asia University, Taiwan.
    Al-Moraissi, Essam Ahmed
    Thamar University, Yemen.
    Christidis, Nikolaos
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Christidis, Maria
    Swedish Red Cross University, Department of Health Sciences. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Research focuses and trends in literacy within education: A bibliometric analysis2023In: Cogent Education, E-ISSN 2331-186X, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 2287922Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a bibliometric analysis including citation performance in the research topic of literacy within education, by using an innovative method including details of article title, author keyword, KeyWords Plus, and abstracts. This novel study is to our knowledge, the first of its kind within the field of literacy and can therefore provide valuable insights for professionals and others interested in literacy in terms of who and what to read, and where to focus. Data were retrieved 17 December 202217 December 2022 from the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) of Clarivate Analytics for studies published from 1992 to 2021. To evaluate research trends, the distribution of keywords in the article title and author‑selected keywords was used. The search yielded 539 documents in SSCI, of which 489 were document-type “articles”. These articles were published in 142 journals. The analysis of the articles showed that “academic writing,” “higher education,” “writing,” and “assessment” are the most used keywords by the authors. The most frequently cited study was published in 1998 by Lea and Street. Most articles were published in English and originated in the USA and the UK. Most studies in the field of professional literacy are produced in the USA and UK, that is, countries with a long tradition of research in professional education and having English as the main language. Most publications are single-country productions because literacy, to a high extent, are local in nature.

  • 20.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    et al.
    Stockholm universitet.
    Jounger, Sofia L.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Christidis, Maria
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Health Sciences.
    Christidis, Nikolaos
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Characteristics of dental note taking: a material based themed analysis of Swedish dental students2020In: BMC Medical Education, E-ISSN 1472-6920, Vol. 20, no 1, article id 511Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The transition from upper secondary to higher education and from higher education to professional practice requires that students adapt to new literacy practices, academic and professional. However, there is a gap of knowledge regarding literacy practices in dental education. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify what characterizes dental students’ notetaking and secondarily to determine what dental students express regarding their notetaking. Methods: To analyze students’ perspectives about the purposes of notetaking and to examine their written notes in depth, three volunteer students, out of the 24 students that voluntarily and anonymously handed in their notes, were interviewed. The three undergraduate dental students that participated in this material-based, semi-structured interview study, framed within a New Literacy Studies approach, were on their third year (6th semester). The focus of these material-based interviews was on each student’s notes. Questions prepared for semi-structured interviews were open-ended and allowed for individual follow-up questions related to the interviewee’s answer. To analyze the outcome of the interviews a thematic analysis was used. Results: From the material-based interviews eight themes that relate to what, how and for what purpose students write were discerned. These eight themes include professional vocabulary, core content as well as clinical examples that belong to what students read and write; multimodal accentuation as well as synthesis that belong to how students read and write; and mnemonic strategies, academic purposes, and professional purposes that belong to for what purpose students read and write. Conclusions: Findings from the interviews indicate that the digital development, offering a variety of available tools, has expanded the notion of notetaking. This study identified that dental students’ notetaking has changed during their education from initially being synchronous, to also include multimodal and asynchronous writing, making notetaking more of a writing practice. Further, students’ writing practices seem to be motivated by their knowledge formation in relation to a subject matter, but also in relation to their experiences during clinical training. Although, our hypothesis was that the main purpose of notetaking and writing was to pass their course examinations, this study showed that students that were half-way through their dental education, are aware that literacy practices are for learning for their future profession, and not only for passing their exams.

  • 21.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    et al.
    Department of Humanities and Social Studies Education, Stockholm University.
    Jounger, Sofia Louca
    Division of Oral Diagnostics and Rehabilitation, Department of Dental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet and Scandinavian Center for Orofacial Neurosciences (SCON).
    Christidis, Maria
    The Swedish Red Cross University College, Department of Health Sciences.
    Christidis, Nikolaos
    Division of Oral Diagnostics and Rehabilitation, Department of Dental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet and Scandinavian Center for Orofacial Neurosciences (SCON).
    Literacy as part of professional knowing in a Swedish dental education2021In: BMC Medical Education, E-ISSN 1472-6920, Vol. 21, no 1, article id 373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Academic reading and writing are seen as self-evident literacy competences in most contemporary higher educations, however, whether students also are introduced to professional literacy of relevance for dentistry during their education is a question. The purpose of this study is to analyze one of the Swedish dental programmes, with respect to its design, in relation to possible content of relevance for academic and professional literacy. Secondarily, to identify and analyze Swedish dental students' writing in an academic setting, i.e. what these students are expected to read and write, and how they write.

    METHODS: Data, for this ethnographically inspired case-study, was produced by observations and audio-recordings of lectures, copies of teachers' handouts and of volunteering students' notes, and a multiple-choice-test. Data-analysis was made in five steps, starting with macro-level data, i.e. curriculum and syllabuses, followed by the syllabuses for the two observed modules, the teacher-provided material, analysis of the students' notes, while in the fifth and final step, the results from the previous steps were compared, to find patterns of what students were expected to read and write, and what in the teacher-provided multimodal material that was emphasized in teachers' talk.

    RESULTS: This study showed that students were engaged in several types of literacy events, such as reading, finding and watching videos on their learning platform, writing, and following instructions. The study also showed that there is a recurrent academic content comprised of anatomy, physiology and pathology, while the professional content comprised of patient communication and anamnesis. Further, an integrated content was found and was initiated in teacher-constructed PowerPoints and by student-questions. Note-taking patterns varied between individual students, but the general pattern for this group of students were the use of complementary notes. This type of note-taking was used to make available further descriptions of the teacher-constructed text in PowerPoints, but also an independent text describing pictures shown on teachers' PowerPoints or the blackboard.

    CONCLUSION: Findings from the present study reveal that students either copy text from teachers' PowerPoint-slides, re-formulate text from teachers' PowerPoint-slides, or write complementing text to teachers' PowerPoint-slides. Further, the students individually choses type of note-taking based on situation. The study also revealed that the academic literacy - in the two modules during the fifth and sixth semesters of a dental education analyzed - mainly has a professional basis for reading, writing, and communication purposes. The study also showed that academic and professional literacy are closely connected through recurrent integration.

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