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  • 1.
    Bisholt, Birgitta
    Karlstads universitet.
    The learning process of recently graduated nurses in professional situations: Experiences of an introduction program2012In: Nurse Education Today, ISSN 0260-6917, E-ISSN 1532-2793, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 289-293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An increased theoretical focus and decreased clinical training have resulted in sharp criticism from health care institutions of the content of the nursing education program. As a consequence of this criticism, employers offer introduction programs to recently graduated nurses after they have completed their nursing education. This study is part one of a larger research study. The aim of the present study was to analyze and describe how recently graduated nurses learn at the place of work and how they seek a meaning in their encounter with that environment. The research method was ethnographic, and the empirical material was based upon data from participant observations, interviews and field notes. The results disclosed that workplaces using the master–apprentice system as a model for supervising recently graduated nurses during the introduction program. The results also showed that the novices have acquired theoretical knowledge and know what action to take, but may have trouble assessing which part of their knowledge to use. The introduction program constitutes an obstacle in the professional development of the novices.

  • 2.
    Bisholt, Birgitta
    Karlstads universitet.
    The professional socialization of recently graduated nurses: Experiences of an introduction program2012In: Nurse Education Today, ISSN 0260-6917, E-ISSN 1532-2793, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 278-282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nursing education entails a three-year program leading up to a Bachelor's degree. Recently graduated nurses lack theoretical as well as clinical skills, thus experiencing difficulties in taking on the professional role. Health care institutions have previously expressed great concern about the increase of theoretical focus at the cost of decreased clinical training and consequently employers presently offer introduction programs after the completion of the nursing education. The present study is part two of a larger study. The aim of the present study was to describe and analyze how recently graduated nurses are socialized into the profession. The research was conducted using an ethnographic approach and the empirical data was acquired by means of participant observations, interviews and field notes. The findings revealed that the staff questions the novices' nursing knowledge and strongly doubts their professional skills. In order for novices to attain member status at the clinical facility, they must constantly prove their professional ability. The findings showed furthermore that deviation by the novices from the norms and expectations associated with the professional role results in their becoming outsiders. Within nursing education the ideology of nursing is prominent, but within the profession the emphasis is on good occupational skills.

  • 3.
    Blomberg, Karin
    et al.
    Örebro University.
    Bisholt, Birgitta
    The Swedish Red Cross University College. Karlstad University.
    Clinical group supervision for integrating ethical reasoning: Views from students and supervisors.2016In: Nursing Ethics, ISSN 0969-7330, E-ISSN 1477-0989, Vol. 23, no 7, p. 761-769Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Clinical group supervision has existed for over 20 years in nursing. However, there is a lack of studies about the role of supervision in nursing students' education and especially the focus on ethical reasoning.

    AIM: The aim of this study was to explore and describe nursing students' ethical reasoning and their supervisors' experiences related to participation in clinical group supervision.

    RESEARCH DESIGN: The study is a qualitative interview study with interpretative description as an analysis approach.

    PARTICIPANTS AND RESEARCH CONTEXT: A total of 17 interviews were conducted with nursing students (n = 12) who had participated in clinical group supervision in their first year of nursing education, and with their supervisors (n = 5).

    ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS: The study was based on the ethical principles outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki, and permission was obtained from the Regional Ethical Review Board in Sweden.

    FINDINGS: The analysis revealed that both the form and content of clinical group supervision stimulated reflection and discussion of handling of situations with ethical aspects. Unethical situations were identified, and the process uncovered underlying caring actions.

    DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Clinical group supervision is a model that can be used in nursing education to train ethical reflection and to develop an ethical competence among nursing students. Outcomes from the model could also improve nursing education itself, as well as healthcare organizations, in terms of reducing moral blindness and unethical nursing practice.

  • 4.
    Johansson Sundler, Annelie
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Björk, Maria
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Bisholt, Birgitta
    Department of Health Sciences, Karlstad University, Karlstad.
    Ohlsson, Ulla
    School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro.
    Kullén Engström, Agneta
    School of Health, University of Borås, Borås.
    Gustafsson, Margareta
    School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro.
    Student nurses’ experiences of the clinical learning environment in relation to the organization of supervision: A questionnaire survey2014In: Nurse Education Today, ISSN 0260-6917, E-ISSN 1532-2793, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 661-666Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim was to investigate student nurses' experiences of the clinical learning environment in relation to how the supervision was organized. Background: The clinical environment plays an essential part in student nurses' learning. Even though different models for supervision have been previously set forth, it has been stressed that there is a need both of further empirical studies on the role of preceptorship in undergraduate nursing education and of studies comparing different models. Method: A cross-sectional study with comparative design was carried out with a mixed method approach. Data were collected from student nurses in the final term of the nursing programme at three universities in Sweden by means of a questionnaire. Results: In general the students had positive experiences of the clinical learning environment with respect to pedagogical atmosphere, leadership style of the ward manager, premises of nursing, supervisory relationship, and role of the nurse preceptor and nurse teacher. However, there were significant differences in their ratings of the supervisory relationship (p < 0.001) and the pedagogical atmosphere (p 0.025) depending on how the supervision was organized. Students who had the same preceptor all the time were more satisfied with the supervisory relationship than were those who had different preceptors each day. Students' comments on the supervision confirmed the significance of the preceptor and the supervisory relationship. Conclusion: The organization of the supervision was of significance with regard to the pedagogical atmosphere and the students' relation to preceptors. Students with the same preceptor throughout were more positive concerning the supervisory relationship and the pedagogical atmosphere. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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